Writing about pic18 in computer desing subject

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The most popular set of microcontrollers are those in the 8051 family. These 8051 family is a preferred choice for professionals specializing in embedded systems because they are cheap, readily available, have a larger user base and also the ability of being reprogrammed with flash memory. Figure 1: The 8051 Microcontroller Invention of the Intel 8051 led to a revolutionary role of microcontrollers in the embedded systems industry. Intensive research in this field led to design of efficient, high performance and low power consumption family of microcontrollers. These included AVR, PIC and ARM. These modern microcontrollers are every day being made smarter to include latest communication protocols like USB, I2C, SPI, Ethernet and CAN. History The name PIC refers to the Peripheral Interface Controller. The first PIC was developed in 1975 by the Microelectronics Division of a company known as General Instruments. It was developed when the Microelectronics Division was testing its 16-bit CPU i.e. CP 1600. … 1. Base Line PIC They are the least complex family of the 8-bit PIC microcontroller since they are based on 12-bit instruction architecture. They are the smallest and the cheapest of all the PICs and are available 6 to 40 pin packaging. 2. Mid-Range PIC These are based on 14-bit instruction architecture with a 20 MHz clock speed. They are mostly used for industry and even hobbyists because of their availability in many peripherals like Op-Amps, ADC, PWM and other communication protocols like SPI, I2C and SPI. 3. Enhanced Mid-Range PIC These are an enhanced version of Mid-Range core. They provide a greater performance in terms of flash memory, clock speed and power consumption. They also include multiples peripherals and protocols like SPI, I2C and USART. 4. PIC 18 It is the highest performing among the 8-bit PIC families and is based on a 16-bit instruction architecture that incorporates an advanced RISC architecture. It is integrated with current communication protocols like TCP/IP protocol, LIN, CAN and USB for communication with internet based networks. Figure 3: PIC 18 Pin Out Memory Variation for PIC 18 PIC 18 is available with many memory options such as mask ROM, EPROM and flash memory. These different types of memories are denoted as follows. Symbol Memory Type Example C EPROM PIC16Cxxx CR Mask ROM PIC16CRxxx F Flash Memory PIC16Fxxx The operating voltage of the PIC 18 ranges from 2.0-5.5 volts. The letter ā€˜Lā€™ is included in the controllers name to denote their voltage range i.e. PIC16LFxxx (operating at 2.0-5.5 range) PIC18 Architecture PIC18 microcontrollers are based the Reduced Instruction Set Computing architecture (RISC). This is the kind of architecture where the hardware gets reduced with an