Working with Federal Reserve’s Publications

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In the financial market, the demand for credit in the different districts has shown a mixed trend compared to the previous Beige report. The Federal Reserve has also reported that the pressure of prices in the economy has eased from that recorded before. To maintain price stability and stabilize the economy, the Federal Reserve uses the Monetary Tools of Open Market Operations, Discount Rate, Reserve Requirements, Interest on Required Reserve Balances and Excess Balances, Term-Asset-Backed Securities Loan Facility and Term Deposit Facility. Ultimately, the paper enumerates an outlook for the economy in the coming twelve to eighteen months. The Federal Reserve System is U.S.A.’s central banking system. It is also known as The Federal Reserve and sometimes informally referred to as the Fed. The enactment of the Federal Reserve Act established the Federal Reserve System in 1913. The Federal Reserve conducts the nation’s monetary policy, supervises and regulates the banking institutions, maintains the stability of the financial system and provides financial services to the Government of U.S.A, the country’s depository institutions and foreign official institutions. The Federal Reserve offers to the general public a variety of publications including the Federal Reserve Board testimonies, press releases, monetary policy reports, the Beige Book etc. which offer a detailed analysis of the current economic activity, the financial markets and the monetary policy tools used to maintain price stability and foster economic activity. Federal Reserve’s assessment of the current economic activity and financial markets According to the Federal Reserve Beige Book of July 2011, economic activity in the twelve districts of the U.S.A continued to grow. However, in many districts the rate of growth has been moderate than that reported before. Overall assessment of consumer spending indicated an increase and a majority of the districts reported a humble increase in the non-auto retail sales. Auto sale slowed down compared to the previous Beige Book report and the disruptions in the Japanese supply chain caused the auto inventories to remain lean. The retail margins continued to be squeezed under pressure in prices from ‘food, energy, cotton, and other supplier inputs’. The Federal Reserve presumes that a decrease in the gasoline prices could have provided an impetus to shopping trips and other additional spending. The summer flavor of tourism had initiated better performance than last year in most of the areas. In most of the districts, activity in the non-financial service sectors reported a growth overall. Manufacturing activity also increased overall in the districts. Firms generally retained their optimistic manufacturing outlook, but were cautious regarding their capital spending strategy. Activity in the residential real estate market remained weak although construction as well as movement in the residential rental sphere improved from before. The agricultural sector in seven districts (which reported on the sector) was unfavorably affected by both drought and extreme flood conditions. However, the energy and mining sectors in the districts which reported on these sectors recorded a robust growth for majority of energy-related products. The production of coal was sluggish. The labor market conditions in the U.S economy remained moderate and most of the districts reported modest increases in the hiring of labor. (The Federal Reserve, July 2011, p. 4, 5) In the financial market, the Federal Reserve reported a mixed loan demand from the districts in comparison to the previous report. Total increase in loan demand was recorded in the New York, Chicago and Richmond districts although they originated from different