The advent of the Baathist party in the early seventies also saw the Education for all initiative which made women’s liberation a supreme tenet of its agenda based upon the prevalent socialist ideology. This does little for the private sphere as the Muslim Shariah laws were discriminatory against women. Things did not look good for the development of the Women’s liberation in the mid-eighties which witnessed an Iraq tumultuously struggling in the Iraq-Iran conflict and the birth of an increasing secularist state which targeting the clerical fundamentalist minority of the country’s political arena. The subsequent suppression of this fundamentalist element caused social conservatism so whereas the women were active economically but politically their position weakened and this caused the decade to witness an increased breach of women’s rights and liberties. The nineties saw a wave of religious fundamentalism backed by the public sector and there was an increase in Burqa and Hijab clad women and there were fewer women in the workforce and colleges. The decaying economy and decreased salaries were equally pivotal in discouraging women’s work and education. It is often said that the condition of women’s liberation and empowerment was worse under Saddam’s regime than compared to Afghan women under the Taliban and it is often argued that the political and economic status of women was greatly brutalized under Saddam. At the end of the war, it is estimated that only 25% of Iraqi women are literate and nearly 20% of the women are employed. (UNESCO estimates).
It is intended that this literature review will consist of 4 chapters
Chapter 1, Women Political Participation Global facts and figures. this will include the number of seats that women have in Parliaments for most different areas and the system they use for women representation, Impediments to women political participation in different areas and means to overcome them.