Witchcraft and shamanism

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Because of the motivation made by the same innate nature, dwelling in human breast since ever, man seeks help and support from metaphysical and supernatural beings at the critical moment when he finds himself hapless and surrounded by misfortunes and miseries. Thus, he has established his faith in the powers apparently invisible, but can be traced and seen by gaining some knowledge or metaphysical powers. Man in a state of society, more especially where there is an inequality of condition and rank, is very often the creature of leisure. He finds himself at one time engaged in the accomplishment of his obvious and immediate desires, and at another in a state in which these desires have for the present been fulfilled, and he has no present occasion to repeat those exertions which led to their fulfilment. (Godwin, 2002, p. 9)… So they took soot from a furnace and stood before Pharaoh. Moses tossed it into the air, and festering boils broke out on men and animals. The Qur’an also narrates that the magic was practiced in the Solomon’s kingdom for condemnable purposes of creating differences between husband and wife in order to create disorder in the society. (Al Qur’an, 2: 102) Witchcraft has not been confined to western societies and the Middle East. rather, it had got popularity in Chinese, Egyptian and Indian cultures, where it had been widely practiced as an essential element of the conventions and traditions of these societies. It is therefore the literature of these societies is replete with the tales related to black magic, sorcery, necromancy and witchcraft. Foxes, lizards and cats were the symbol of witchcraft and magic in Chinese culture, and people had developed superstitions in the light of the stories related to witchcraft and black magic found in abundance in the Chinese literature and religious mythology as well. Like Medieval era, Renaissance Age also identifies witches and sorcerers in their society. The literature of that era explicitly defines the evil curse being observed in society. Christopher Marlow’s Dr. Faustus manifestly ratifies the exercising of magic by the satanic forces by revolting against the Divine Law just for obtaining the worldly gains. Similarly, ghosts and demons also frequently made their appearance in Shakespearean plays, which endorse the existence of the same in Elizabethan era. Practicing of black magic and sorcery is actually the outcome of attaining worldly pursuits without making efforts. Additionally, the humans desire to supersede their fellow beings in the race of earning pelf, power, popularity and possession, which cannot be