The author says that although hybrid cars have substantially reduced the emissions as compared to the fuel cars, it is worth noting that the Zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) have succeeded in eliminating emissions. As compared to the fuel cars, the zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) are much better in terms of efficiency and environmental aspect. On the other hand, hybrid cars blend the functionalities of both electric and fuel cars and therefore, they come in between in terms of efficiency (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2004). Despite the fact that the fuel cars have considerably cut down on their emission over the past one decade, the zero-emission vehicles (ZEV) have completely no gaseous, liquid, or particulate emission, making them a much better option.
Essentially, the zero-emission vehicles have no tailpipe that is common in fuel and hybrid cars. It means that zero-emission cars do not emit any pollutants such as hydrocarbons, lead, soot, ozone, or carbon monoxide (Boxwell &. Boxwell, 2011). This aspect makes them especially environmentally friendly besides helping them to be more efficient. In this respect, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) have both approved the zero-emission cars as being the best cars for the 21st century when the protection of the environment has become a big issue. Indeed, the organizations have classified the emission of volatile organic compounds by vehicles at the same level as those emitted by factories (Reynolds, 2012).
When it comes to the vehicles that have zero-emission, it is worth noting that vehicles powered by muscle top the list. Examples of such vehicles include the bicycle and vehicles that use electric power stored in batteries (Crawford, 2013). Hydrogen-powered vehicles are not necessarily zero-emission vehicles, as they emit some vapor. Therefore, hydrogen-powered vehicles can be said to be partial .zero-emission vehicles. .