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What Is Memory and How Does It Work

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Baddeley and Hitch (1974. in Smith amp. Kosslyn, 2008) provided an alternate explanation for the short-term memory store called the Working Memory (WM). According to them, WM has multiple components that process particular kinds of information. The dominant mechanisms are a central executive that processes information and takes decisions, the visuospatial sketchpad that processes visual information and the phonological loop which processes auditory data. An individual is thus able to retrieve information from long-term memory and hold it in working memory while they use it. The long-term memory store (LTM) contains memories as young as a few hours old to as old as a few decades. Memories are stored in nodes in the LTM, and similar items are connected to each other. so that in accessing one memory, other associated memories also become accessible.Unlike the more transient stores, memories are not completely erased from the long-term store unless the individual suffers damage to the brain. But people often have trouble retrieving information if it was inefficiently encoded or if they are not presented with adequate cues. Another factor that can affect retrieval is the presence of a medical condition like Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease or other forms of dementia that can cause significant problems in this process.This test was developed by Scharre et al. (2010) at the Ohio State University Medical Center to be used as a tool to test different aspects of memory use in adults….
The SAGE Memory Test The Self Administered Gerocognitive Examination or the SAGE is a simple self administered screening test that checks for signs of dementia and other cognitive impairments that inhibit memory use. This test was developed by Scharre et al. (2010) at the Ohio State University Medical Center to be used as a tool to test different aspects of memory use in adults. The test assesses the use of information stored in LTM and has four parallel forms that can be used interchangeably. Each form consists of 12 questions that allow the user to test different aspects of memory and to differentiate between normal cognitive functioning, mild deficits and major deficits. Besides the scored items, the test also helps gather data on a number of variable that predispose an individual for conditions that cause memory deficits. The authors caution that the test is only a screening device and cannot be used as a substitute for formal testing. The SAGE has a score range from 0 to 22, with scores below 17 suggesting some impairment and scores below 14 suggesting major impairments (Scharre et al., 2010). This individual used form A of the test as described by the authors, and had it scored using the prescribed scoring key. A score of 20 was obtained. demonstrating that this individual has normal cognitive abilities and does not suffer from memory impairments. The data from the non-scored questions do suggest that the author may be experiencing intermittent stressors that affect memory, and should explore means of dealing with such stress effectively. Encoding Encoding is the process by which people commit information to memory. The first step in encoding any information is to attend to it. When a piece of information is attended to, the