The climate experienced here is the hot desert type of climate. As a result, the region receives a low amount of rainfall or even to the extreme rainfall becomes rare. Temperature is also very high which brings with it high evaporation rates. The population is also increasing at a rapid rate which means more water is needed to meet the population’s water needs. The average per capita water availability has been experiencing a declining trend. for instance in 1995 it was at 2385m3 for the whole year this then dropped sharply to 1046 m3 in the year 2000 and a similar decline is expected to continue and reach 676m3 in the year 2025. The lack of water in Egypt has become a barrier to its quest for economic development and support to society. Because of this, it is clear that looking for a suitable method for water provision in Egypt arid areas is a priority. Expansion in industrial, agriculture and tourism sectors have also contributed pressure being exerted on natural resources. Agriculture tops the list in terms of water consumption in Egypt with a demand of between 80-85% of the entire water demand. In order to ensure sustainability in agriculture, it is important that Egypt conserves and manages its water resources well. Egypt’s water resources include both conventional and non-conventional. Conventional resources include rainfall, Nile river, under groundwater, desalination of seawater while non-conventional ones come from the reuse of agricultural drainage, re-use of treated wastewater.
The fact that water is becoming a scarce resource in Egypt has left the country’s planners with the choice to consider other sources of water that might come in handy in meeting the increasing demands. In instances where quality water is scarce, the options to consider marginal water for use in agriculture the better choice. Egypt is well known for its horizontal expansion in agriculture which is linked to its ability to provide .the needed water. .