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Urban Agriculture a Key to Sustainability

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Urban Agriculture (UA) is the exercise of cultivating, processing and doling out food within and around cities. The most remarkable feature of urban agriculture, which distinguishes it from rural agriculture, is that it is capable of being integrated into the urban economic, social and ecological systems. This includes the use of urban residents as workers, the use of common urban resources (such as solid organic urban wastes as compost and urban wastewater for irrigation), links with urban consumers, impacts on urban ecology, simply being a part of the urban food system, competing for land with other urban functions, and being influenced by urban policies and plans. Urban farming is by and large practiced for income-earning or food-producing activities, though in some communities the main impulsions are recreation and relaxation. In UA, we can produce crop, horticulture, animal and aquatic production or any combination of these. 1.2. Why Urban Agriculture? In this steadily growing urban world, seventy-five percent of the people in industrialized countries already live in towns and cities, far from anything urban. urbanization has become a global occurrence in the last fifty years. A massive movement of people from rural villages to cities the world over is considered to be the greatest human migration in history. Freeman (1991) makes note of four major motivations and roles for UA to attend to in the developing countries: to satisfy basic hunger. to supplement an excessively starchy diet. to supplement the family income, and to reduce expenditures on food to allow other purchases. Despite these dietary and socioeconomic realities, central governments often do not support urban agriculture. Indeed, many ignore or actively discourage it. Compared to the agro-industrial complex, urban agriculture has a vast range of environmental, economic, and social advantages.