To help us understand the communist manifesto and it implications to our modern times, let us look into the theories of capitalism and communism that served as the foundations of the manifesto.
Capitalism is one of the most widely discussed theories in the Communist manifesto. Here, Marx discussed at length the effects of capitalism in relation to labor. Marx considers capitalism as a specific mode of production whereby productivity is dictated by the people who controlled the mode of production (Burnham, Peter (2003). Marx sees the "bourgeois society" as an advanced form of social organization whereby the people who control the wealth also controls production (Marx and Engels, 1948). To distinguish the value of commodities, Marx presented the idea that the value of the use of commodities is different from their exchange value in the market. He believed that capital is created when one purchases commodities to create another commodity that can command a higher value in the market.
According to Marx, labor becomes like any other commodity under a capitalist society in the sense that labor earns less value for its service compared to the value that the capitalist derived from labor. A good example of this scenario is a person who offers his or her service to a big manufacturing company in exchange for minimum wage. Marx argued that the difference in the value of the service rendered by the employee and the value derived by the employee from the service rendered by the employee is surplus value which the capitalist earned on the expense of labor. (Marx, 1909). Under this principle, since labor has less influence and power over production, labor is continuously exploited. All throughout the discussions in the communist manifesto, Marx struggled to present how the labor sector is exploited by reason of its status in society which gives it less bargaining powers compared to the "bourgeois".
For anti-capitalists, the Communist manifesto represents the history of the struggle of the proletariat and .the path towards the transition from capitalism to socialism. .