These managers, in particular, are the ones who most of us are familiar with, as unless we are lucky enough to land a top job right away, we will be with these guys. If something comes up in the department, they are usually the first to know – being in charge, they should be. As the title implies, a manager is expected to supervise – to manage – his department and his subordinates. Specifically, he is expected to get things done efficiently (minimum cost, maximum output) and effectively (attaining goals and doing the right things). This means that it is highly desirable to attain one’s goals while using the least possible amount of resources. This process is called management. The first step in management is to plan – to set goals, come up with a strategy, and develop plans to coordinate abilities. This answers the questions of what you want, how you plan to get it, and what you will do to get it. The next step is to organize, that is, the manager then delegates tasks to his subordinates, decides how tasks are to be grouped and what needs to be done. In this step, it is important to take into account who is best suited to handle certain tasks. For instance, if your plan calls for the use of print ads, hire a graphic artist – or better yet, find someone on the team who has talent in that area. This step is where a manager’s interpersonal skills are needed most. As he is expected to know his subordinates relatively well, this is an important decision one must take great caution in making – and which one has absolutely no excuse for fumbling. Next would be to lead one’s subordinates – that is, to motivate them, direct them, choose an effective means of communication, and resolve conflicts should they arise. Finally, to control – monitoring performance, comparing it with company goals, and making changes when necessary.