Tranexamic acid and it’s uses in prehospital an emergency medicine

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The acid should not be used because it works against clots and hence activates intravascular coagulation and platelet usage. If a person with DIC is administered with the acid they end up having end-organ damage due to microvascular pathologies. The unwanted effects of the drug include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hypotension and disturbances in vision. Tranexamic acid is used topically. The acid is excreted in the urine (Twycross et al, 2002).Tranexamic acid has lately been used in emergency medical scenarios. Even though hemostatic dressings and tourniquets have prevented conditions such as hemorrhagic shock, the usage of tranexamic acid can have the same effect. This drug has been used for a long time in cardiac surgeries and bleeding disorders such as hemophilia. Now it is being used in taking care of hemodynamic conditions. A study by the name of Clinical Randomization of an Antifibrinolytic in Significant Hemmorrhage 2 (CRASH-2) tested 20000 patients with tranexamic acid across various countries. The results of the study showed that in an emergency trauma center where patients had serious bleeding, tachycardia and hypotension were given tranexamic acid. The recipients of TXA had a mortality of 14.5 %. Hence patients receiving TXA were at benefit. Another study is the Military Application of Tranexamic Acid in Trauma Emergency Resuscitation (MATTERs) was carried out which involved TXA infusion in an out-patient hospital. Tranexamic acid was administered in patients in which hemorrhagic shock was suspected. The results of the MATTERs study showed that individuals who received TXA had a mortality of 17.4% (Goodloe, 2013).Annually more than 500000 women lose their lives to postpartum events such as childbirth. Obstetric hemorrhage cause increased rates of maternal mortality. Hence systemic fibrinolytic agents are used in surgeries to prevent fibrinolysis to avoid blood loss after surgeries. A study