ANO requires that the commander of the aircraft do the following before take-off: that equipment required under the rules to be carried by aircraft are fit for use or that the flight is in accordance with the permission given by the authorities. that the aircraft is fit for the flight. that the load being carried is in accordance with the aircraft specs and is so distributed within the aircraft that it won’t hamper the flight’s safety. that it carries sufficient fuel, coolant and oil for the duration of the flight with sufficient margins for emergencies. that sufficient ballast is carried. any scheduled pre-flight maintenance check had been complied with (§ (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), (h)). Jack had not performed any of these pre-flight activities except look at the instrumentation cursorily.Similarly, under s 98 on small aircraft, the Air Navigation Act 2005 specifically mandated any person-in-charge of a small aircraft not to fly it unless he has performed certain acts that will ensure the safety of such flight. These particular regulations apply to aircraft weighing more than 7 kg without fuel. The CESSNA 172, of the CESSNA family of planes, is a 3-passenger capacity small plane and is classified as a non-EASA small aeroplane, with a single-piston engine A/C (Non-EU Aircraft p 25). It has a weight of 743 kg when empty and 1,111kg as its maximum take-off load (MTOL) (CESSNA 172 Specs) making it fall within the ambit of s 98 of ANO which prohibits among others, flying the aircraft without ensuring that the flight can be made safely which should include checking fuel sufficiency, prior permission of the air traffic controller for Class A, C, D, or E airspace before flying the aircraft over their airspace. In the case at hand, Jack flew the CESSNA 172 over Luton and eventually in Leeds airport, itsdestination, without prior communication and approval of their ATCs before the flight initiation.