It is evidently clear from the discussion that the American public has fallen into such complacency such that they no longer mind delegating responsibilities for health care and education to bureaucrats in Washington, as opposed to state representatives, as the Founding Fathers and framers of the Constitution originally intended. The proof is in the print, or, more specifically, the Tenth Amendment, which safeguards us against an aggressive expansion of Federal powers. Education, along with other civil services, lacks mention in the Constitution and therefore is within the power of the states. Regulation from the Federal level, in addition to being empirically ineffective and wasteful, is constitutionally illegitimate. Standards-based (or standardized) education reform cannot improve individual outcomes in education, serving only to waste valuable resources. To say that such legislation as No Child Left Behind, following in the progressive tradition, needs reform is erroneous. in a matter of fact, it needs annulment and education remains the rightful domain of the states. Perhaps the most potent reason why Federal education reform like the No Child Behind Act is unallowable is not the fact that it fails on all accounts to bring about the change it promises, but the fact that it is constitutionally unlawful. Nevertheless, No Child Left Behind is merely the newest add-on to a lineage of nonsensical legislation, beginning with the progressive Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. What public officials would laugh out of court in 1800, based on a clear contradiction with the United States’ founding document, is being passed zealously in today’s Congress because of a perceived emergency of the first order. Bill Graves, a Republican state legislator from Oklahoma, stated publically in an interview, The constitutions gives Congress no power to legislate as to education. That’s not part of the new rated powers of Congress under Article I.