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Mr. Kile’s coronary arteries were reported to have been 80-90% blocked which led to oxygen deficiency in the myocardium which therefore resulted in the permanent damage of the heart muscle. The affected part of the heart potentially triggered electrical activity which led to ventricular fibrillation (Starr, 2013). This fibrillation can be described as an uncoordinated twitch instead of the regular rhythmic pumping of the heart. Therefore, the heart is unable to fulfill its role of supplying blood to the rest of the body. How are arteries different from veins and capillaries? Describe the functions of both arteries and veins Arteries, veins and capillaries differ both in their histological composition and their functions (Starr, 2013). The walls of arteries and veins are comprised of three layers whilst those of capillaries are only one cell thick. However, the arterial and venous walls differ in their structure as arteries have a thicker tunica media than that of veins (Starr, 2013). This is mainly due the the fact that arteries carry blood away from the heart hence the blood has a higher pressure than that in the veins which is carried towards the heart. Veins also have a wider lumen due to the low pressure in venous blood (Starr, 2013). They also possess several valves to prevent the back flow of blood. Apart from the umbilical and pulmonary arteries and veins, arterial blood is always oxygenated and and venous blood is always dehydrogenated. In summation, the main function of arteries is to supply oxygen and nutrients to different tissues in the body, while veins carry deoxygenated blood from these tissues to the heart (Starr, 2013). Vertebrates and some invertebrates have a closed circulatory system. Explain the advantage of having a closed circulatory system over an open circulatory system? An open circulatory system is characterized by the heart pumping blood into the hemocoel, which is localized between the endoderm and ectoderm (Pittman, 2011). This fluid is often referred to as hemolymph and is distributed to tissues and organs through ta system of interconnected sinuses. Animals with this type of circulation often have low blood pressure and a high volume of blood in comparison to their bodies (Pittman, 2011). A closed circulatory system is comprised of a heart and a vascular system. The organs and tissues are not directly bathed in the blood. This system as a more complete separation of function than that of an open circulatory system (Pittman, 2011). A closed circulatory system enables the organism to survive with lower volumes of blood. A closed circulatory system also enables more control over the blood supply to different parts of the organism. Animals with a closed circulatory system also have a higher metabolic rate. The closed circulatory system is also advantageous in the sense that it is able to include the process of ultrafication in blood circulation. In the closed circulatory system, the pulmonary and systemic circulations can respectively maintain their optimum temperatures (Pittman, 2011). Briefly explain how the lymphatic system is associated with the circulatory system? There are many interrelations between the circulatory and lymphatic system. The lymphatic system is involved in the removal of interstitial fluid from different tissues and is also