This school became the center of knowledge for African Americans. Carver tried to improve the Southern economy where African Americans were the most oppressed. In 1922, the first course regarding African civilization was taught at the American University called Howard University. Later, in 1944, the United Negro College Fund was established by Frederick Douglass Patterson to assist in supporting African American colleges and African American students. The Supreme Court unanimously ruled that separation of African Americans and White Americans in Public Schools was against the constitution. Finally, in 1957 President Eisenhower took the final step by sending federal soldiers to make sure that the Central High School located in Little Rock, Ark became the first school to teach both African Americans and White Americans. HBCUs are still offering outstanding higher educational chances for African Americans in various fields. African Americans did not find it easy to learn with White students after 1957. Initially, since the African Americans were slaves of the White Americans despite the fact that the government had made all-White schools into integrated schools the White Americans still discriminated against the African American students. Since African Americans had once worked as slaves they were perceived to be dumber than White Americans by the teachers and so the teachers preferred to give more attention to the supposedly intelligent White students who demanded less attention. Such stereotyping also resulted in White students avoiding to sit with or become friendly with African American students. As a result, African American students had to spend more time finding the right friends to socialize with or impressing their white teachers. The interesting thing to note is that still, African American students have to act White (Ogbu, 2004).