Telecommunications and Networks Applications This study seeks to understand telecommunication and networks application, through the study of video conferencing and geostationary satellites. The uses, benefits as well as the disadvantages of these communication tools will be discussed under this study. Discussion Videoconferencing refers to a mode of communication, where two individuals or groups of people can communicate through audio and visual two-way transmission, which is simultaneous. Through video conferencing, multiple locations can communicate on the same agenda, while listening and seeing each other (Wolfe, 2007). Videoconferencing is made possible using telecommunication technologies, which ensures there is real time communication among the different localities. The requirements for videoconferencing include a video decoder that compresses a video to a transmittable form (Arthur, 2009). A digital network is also required to transmit the waves from one locality to another. A video input, mostly a video camera or a Webcam is required for inputting the video, while outputs which includes a computer and projector are necessary to give the video output (Wolfe, 2007). Audio inputs such as microphones are required for trapping the audio communication, while audio outputs such as speakers are required to give the audio output, from which the individuals involved in communication listens to and then responds. A data transfer network, such as LAN or the internet is necessary, as the line through which the video and audio transmissions are passed from one locality to the other (Arthur, 2009). The advantages associated with videoconferencing are that it offers convenience, by making it possible for people to communicate with each other, at the expense of travelling to meet. Additionally, videoconferencing provides for a face-to-face communication channel, which enhances the communication, since files and other data information can be shared through PowerPoint and other means of display (Wolfe, 2007). It is also cost effective, where the distance to be traveled is long. The risk involved in video conferencing include hacking, where the information being communicated to different localities can be tapped by hackers, more so if it is of a confidential nature. More to this, technical problems such as power outage can interfere with the communication (Arthur, 2009). Geostationary satellite Refers to the communication satellites that are placed above the equator, approximately 22, 300 miles above the earth, which is stationery (Mark, 2009). These satellites are placed stationary at one place, where the antennas on the ground communicate directly with them without any need to move in an attempt to trace the satellites. The Geostationary satellites are used variously. First, they are used for communication, whereby the communication signals are received by the satellites from the antennas on the ground, for example where the caller is, then, amplified and transmitted to the other destination of the receiver, across the world (Arthur, 2009). The Geostationary satellite satellites makes such communication possible in that they are placed in one stationary place, making it possible to be accessed and to transmit the communication waves any time, as opposed to when they could be moving, since calls can only be made at a time when they are accessible by the antennas. The satellites are used for defense and intelligence, where the military uses the spy satellites to trace the location of their enemies or allies (Mark, 2009). Additionally, the military have special communication satellites that ensure that their communication cannot be tracked by ordinary communication devices. Geostationary satellite are also used for weather forecasting, where they provide the information such as the temperatures, humidity, cloud covers, thus assisting weather departments make predictions on the likely weather situations (Arthur, 2009). Additionally, global positioning is another use that these satellites are applied, where an individual with a communication device that has a GPS can know exactly which position of the earth he is (Mark, 2009). A Geostationary satellite has coverage of approximately a third of the whole earth, meaning that the earth can be covered by using just three geostationary satellites (Mark, 2009). There are various advantages associated with the geostationary satellites. These satellites are stationary and placed constantly in the same position. This allows them to give continuously, a repeated observation of the same area, allowing the communication antennas to access them easily, thus, making communication possible round the clock (Wolfe, 2007). These satellites give a high-resolution data, within a very short span of time. Therefore, it is possible to monitor the weather conditions such as storms in real time (Arthur, 2009). However, the disadvantage associated with these satellites is the fact that they have chances of causing delays in audio communication. Considering that they are placed a greater distance high above the earth, the transmission of audio waves can take some time from the antenna to the satellites, causing a delay in voice circuits (Mark, 2009). The other disadvantage is the fact that to build and launch a satellite is expensive. Additionally, it is not possible to repair and maintain them, since they are placed a long distance away from the earth, making it impossible for anyone to access and repair them (Wolfe, 2007). Conclusion Telecommunication networks such as video conferencing and geostationary satellite have greatly improved communication. However, there are various limitations associated with them, including the fact that the costs involved in setting up such tools are high. References Arthur, C. (2009). Extra-Terrestrial Relays: Can Rocket Stations Give Worldwide Radio Coverage? Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mark, C. (2009). Satellite Communications: The disadvantages of satellites. RPC Telecommunications Ltd. Wolfe, M. (2007). Broadband videoconferencing as knowledge management tool. Journal of Knowledge Management.