Technical report on hydrogen experiment Assignment

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figures Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 6 Figure 2 Filling the syringe with distilled water 7 Figure 3 Placing inner containers 7 Figure 4 Connecting tubes 8 Figure 5 Using fuel cells and solar panel 8 Figure 6 Inserting batteries 10 Figure 7 Assembling electrical fans 10 Figure 8 Connecting the motor to reversible fuel cell 11 Figure 9 Using solar panel 11 Introduction Hydrogen derived from renewable sources such as wind and solar is clean, self-sufficient and a permanent energy solution for sustainable development. A kilogram of hydrogen is roughly equivalent to a gallon of gasoline in energy content. (Johanna L, 2007) This makes hydrogen a technology of the future in reducing reliance on imported fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. Hydrogen could be produced from fossil fuels using steam reforming, which emits CO2 and expensive ways such as catalytic cracking without CO2 emissions. This pathway is more cost-effective. Water electrolysis is an efficient and expensive way because of its high electricity requirement. For instance, a study (Khan M.J., Iqbal M.T., 2005) stated that assuming an electricity cost of $0.05/kwh, nearly nowadays price of wind produced electricity. hydrogen made from water electrolysis costs more than $2.84/kg based on higher heating value. Hydrogen produced from photovoltaic is also expensive because of high PV electricity cost.( Sherif S.A. et al, 2005) Wind produced electricity, on the other hand, is becoming more competitive nowadays. Therefore, it can produce less expensive hydrogen. Electrolysis: The general principle in electrolysis is that water is supplied to an electrochemical cell, and hydrogen evolves at the anode while oxygen evolves at the cathode when the supplied energy is greater than the zero current cell potential. Alkaline electrolysis is commercially available technology. It takes place at a temperature around 800C and pressure of 1-30bar.( US department of energy, 2010) Fuel cells: Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy in fuel to electrical energy with high efficiency and low environmental impact. Because combustion is avoided, they produce power with minimum pollution. They contain electrodes anode and cathode separated by an electrolyte. Fuels such as hydrogen or hydrogen rich synthesis gas, are supplied to the anodes while the oxidant is fed to the cathodes. The most common oxidant is oxygen from air. Electrochemical reaction occurs in the electrolyte producing current while deriving external load.( Fuel cell Handbook, 2010) Materials and Methods Preparation of the Electrolyzer Module and Solar Powered Hydrogen Production 1. Insert the reversible fuel cell, terminals on top, into the slot on the base. Cut 2 x 4cm length pieces of rubber tube and insert a black pin into the end of one tube. Place the tube with the black pin into the top pin on the hydrogen side (with black terminal). Place the other tube firmly onto the top input nozzle on the oxygen side. Figure 1 preparation of the electrolyzer module 2. Fill