In short, a threat, surprise, unpredictability, short duration of response and inevitability define crises. Among all crises, damages, reputation and image are of key concern to any leader and organization during the crisis and post crisis. Arnold (2008) argues that reputational damage is an emergent danger during any crisis. Chen (2008) cites image as a central concept to the disciplines of human relations, fundamental to organizations (such as, government bodies, corporations, nonprofit groups and government institutions) as well as individuals. When a crisis erupts, the organization’s image is damaged and its capacity to manage the crisis qualities are put to test (Becker 2011).
Coombs (2012) argues that crisis management is aimed at reducing or warding off financial and reputational risks by espousing the development of policies to help in the handling communication crises. A bank for crisis management policies seeks to help reduce potential negative outcomes ascribed to emergent situations and, thereby, protect institutions, stake holders and the industry from damage,
According to Coombs (2012), an active crisis management platform originates from a universal “range of crisis communication approaches” comprising of a variety of activities from “denial to accommodation”. Defensive approaches assert that no disaster exists, or try to evade accountabilities for the crisis, through comprise, denial, excuses, justifications and attacks targeted at the accuser.