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A & A Coffee Style Guide Approving Authority Executive Group Approval Date November 2016 Advisor Document Manager, Information Technology Department Next Scheduled Review May 2017 Purpose To define and set standards in relation to document production. Category Information Technology – Document Production Key Words standard, document, production, print, template, word processing, charts, reporting, presentations File Number IT-48-3 Document Owner Document Manager, Information Technology Department Related Legislation (document production) Privacy Act 1988 Age Discrimination Act 2004 Disability Discrimination Act 1992 Racial Discrimination Act 1975 Sex Discrimination Act 1984 Copyright Act 1968 WHS Act 2011 and WHS Regulations 2011 Copyright Act 1968 Table of ContentsVersion Control 1About the Style Guide. 2Purpose and Context. 2How to Read the Style Guide. 21 Document Structuring. 32 Language. 32.1 Plain English. 32.2 Punctuation. 42.3 Spelling. 62.4 Inclusive Language. 73 Capitalisation. 74 Headings and Subheadings. 85 Bulleted Lists. 86 Numbers, Currency and Dates. 97 Typography. 107.1 Font, Line and Paragraph Spacing. 107.2 Bold, Italics and Underline. 107.3 Headings and Subheadings. 118 Layout. 118.1 Tables. 118.2 Illustrations and Charts. 128.3 Page Layout. 149 Citation and Reference List. 159.1 In-text Citations. 159.2 Reference List (Bibliography). 1510 Slideshow Presentations. 16Version Control Style Guide Manager Document Manager, Information Technology Department Contact Document Manager, Information Technology Department Approval Authority Executive Group Version 1.0 Created November 2016 Review Date May 2017 Revision History Revision # Approved/ Amended/ Rescinded Date Authority Changes New Approved 01 November 2016 Executive Group None. About the Style GuidePurpose and ContextThis style guide is designed to set standards and ensure consistency for preparing internal materials for A & A Coffee in either print or electronic format. It also:ensures A & A Coffee staff uses a consistent tone and style across the organisationsets standards in orthography including language, grammar, spelling, style, and punctuation in accordance to relevant legislationgoverns document quality standards in relation to visual composition.How to Read the Style GuideThis style guide follows a rule-example structure as shown below: Information: sets the rules for the given context. Example: provides examples for the given context. Information à Use apostrophe with singular nouns and personal names: Example à the company’s policy and procedures Matt’s mother was very sick. Information à with plural nouns: Example à the children’s party Information à to express time: Example à in eight months’ time. Information à after acronyms: Example à TAFE’s budget has been increased this year by the Australian government.  1 Document StructuringDocuments must be structured appropriately to ensure reader understanding. The following principles must be addressed to ensure a good document structure:Audience focused: documents must be specifically written bearing in mind the target audience’s needs, cognitive capacity and proficiency.Legible and readable: clear document style and layout must be used.Scannable: documents must exercise effective paragraphing, informative headings, coherent and logical breakdown of content, and clear navigation paths.Visual: content must be presented visually using illustrations to clarify meaning and ease audience understanding.2 LanguageDocuments must be prepared using appropriate language to ensure effective communication, where appropriate language is discussed in the subsequent sections of this section.2.1 Plain EnglishYou must:use simple and plain English with a formal outlookuse short sentences to avoid ambiguitybe clear, concise and relevantavoid unnecessary wordinguse everyday words and avoid jargons or ‘buzzwords’:­ expert marketer instead of growth hacker­ honest and open instead ofabove-boardavoid double negatives­ don’t do anythingavoid archaic words­ heretofore, naught, shaltuse passive voice rather than active where possible­ The trainer helped the student (active)­ The student was helped by the trainer (passive)engage with the audience:Use:In the next task, you are required to form a team.Instead of:In the next task, students will form a team.2.2 PunctuationYou must conform to the following rules of punctuation: Punctuation Details and Examples Full stop (.) Use full stop: to end a sentence: ­ He went to the market. to separate the elements of email and web address: ­ www.google.com.au | mail@mail.com to express time: ­ 11.15 am to represent decimal points in numbers and currency formats: ­ 12.33 to end a bulleted list (see Bulleted Lists) after abbreviations: ­ Tue. (Tuesday) ­ fig. (figure) ­ e.g. (example) Do not use full stop after: document titles headings and subheadings internationally recognised representations of units of measurement (e.g.; kg, mm) acronyms (e.g.; TAFE, NSW) Comma (,) Use comma: to prevent equivocalness: ­ According to Mark, James was not good at all. à two people ­ According to Mark James was not good at all. à one person, unclear to list items: ­ He bought an apple, orange, banana, watermelon, and lemon. to coordinate clauses, introductory statements and transitional expressions: ­ It was a fantastic event; however, it was too expensive. ­ Since she can cook great food, she may become a chef too. ­ For instance, Arabic coffee tastes quite strong. to coordinate parenthetic expressions and titles: ­ On the contrary, regardless of his height, Susan jumped very high. ­ The Principal, John Citizen, requested to call for a meeting. in numbers with more than three digits: ­ 1,000 ­ 10,000 Question mark (?) Use question mark: to query something or to direct a question (directly or indirectly): ­ Did you do it? ­ So, that is all? to express a doubt: ­ We expect to have a party on her November 25 (?) birthday. Do not use question marks after: an indirect question: ­ I was wondering, if there has been any progress on the issue. a sentence which has an implicit query embedded: ­ I need to know how and when it could be done. Colon (:) Use colon: to introduce a bulleted list (see Bulleted Lists) to introduce a series of items that belong to the same cluster: ­ The following fruits are good for digestion: spinach, apricot and plums.  to introduce a phrase or clause that illustrates, extends or amplifies a sentence: ­ I can only say one thing about it: remarkable! Semicolon (;) Use semicolon: to link to clauses where each clause carries a meaning as a complete sentence: ­ It was a fantastic event; however, it was too expensive. to connect multiple lists of items where each list uses comma to separate its own items: ­ She achieved a remarkable score in each area: jumping, 9/10; kayaking, 8/10; weight-lifting, 8.5/10; and running, 9/10. Exclamation mark (!) Use exclamation mark: to provide emphasis on emotions: ­ No, not you again! Parentheses () Use parentheses: to enclose additional information: ­ The AFP (Australian Federal Police) has been looking for the victim. ­ In 2013, the increase was 3.4% ($0.8 million) compared to 2010. ­ The 14th Prime Minister of Australia is The Right Honourable, John Curtin (1885-1945). Bulleted Lists     use full stop at the end of the list (without using commas in between): ­ The idea of dieting relates to: § idea 1 § idea 2. Apostrophe (’) Use apostrophe: with singular nouns and personal names: ­ the company’s policy and procedures ­ Matt’s mother was very sick. with plural nouns: ­ the children’s party to express time: ­ in eight months’ time after acronyms: ­ TAFE’s budget has been increased this year by the Australian government. Hyphens (-) Use hyphens: to clarify meaning when using words with prefixes: ­ re-sign (to sign again) or resign (to quit) ­ re-cover (to cover again) or recover (to improve) to tell the ages of people and other things: ­ She has a two-year-old dog. with prefixes ‘co’, ‘ex’, ‘self’, and ‘all’ ­ co-worker, ex-president, self-motivated, and all-knowing to prefix ‘e’ for electronic ­ e-book, e-business, e-commerce to link noun compounds involving prepositional phrases: ­ mother-in-law to use compound numbers, estimates of time, fractions and other quantities: ­ two thousand three hundred forty-one dollars, one-third of your time ­ 1:10-1:15 p.m. Ampersands (&) do not use ampersands unless it forms part of a special name: ­ He works at Johnson & Johnson. Abbreviations and Acronyms write uncommon abbreviations and acronyms in full when introduced first time: ­ European Woman Council (EWC) use full stop after an abbreviation: ­ e.g. (example) ­ Mon. (Monday) add ‘s’ at the end of abbreviations or acronyms to make them plural: ­ FAQs (frequently asked questions) ­ MPs (Member of Parliament) Spacing after punctuation use only one character space after a punctuation: ­ He was a good man. Also, his mother used to cook beautifully. ­ Did you hear what he said? Did I hear him correctly? 2.3 SpellingYou must:use Australian spelling:­ ‘ise’ instead of ‘ize’§ maximise instead of maximize§ capitalise instead of capitalize­ ‘our’ instead of ‘or’§ colour instead of color§ flavour instead of flavor­ ‘re’ instead of ‘er’§ centre instead of center§ theatre instead of theater­ ‘isation’ instead of ‘ization’§ globalisation instead of globalization§ internationalisation instead of internationalization ­ ‘yse’ instead of ‘yze’§ catalyse instead of catalyze§ analyse instead of analyzeuse correct irregular plurals, for instance:­ children instead of childs­ men instead of mans­ geese instead of goosesset software language preferences to English (Australia):­ File à Options à Language à Editing Language à English (Australia)use a spellchecker:­ File à Options à Proofing à When correcting spelling and grammar in Word refer to Macquarie Dictionary as a reference point for the spelling of words not listed in this Guide:www.macquariedictionary.com.au2.4 Inclusive LanguageYou must:use inclusive language and not linguistically discriminate based on sex, race, age, gender, ethnical background, and physical/mental abilitieswrite personal and country names, states and territories, ethnic groups and religious affiliation in capital letters:­ Her name is Haruka Tanaka and she is from Japan.­ Indigenous, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples­ Jamal is a Sudanese Arab and he is Christian.­ He was born in Sydney, NSW and then he moved to Brisbane, QLD.­ You must comply with the Commonwealth legislation.avoid gender-specific pronouns:­ Learners must submit their assessments to their Trainer/Assessor­ police officer instead of policemanrefer to people with a disability:­ people with intellectual disability­ people with a vision impairment­ people with a hearing impairmentuse age-inclusive terms:­ elderly instead of old people­ young people.3 CapitalisationYou must:use initial capitals for positions, personal names, place names, nationalities, and groups of people­ Chief Executive Officer – Bill Gates – Sydney – Australia – Australian write company/brand names as they are commercially used­ Microsoft Excel, iPhonecapitalise the first letters of headings/subheadings in each section­ Section 2: World’s Greatest Economycapitalise special names related to inclusive language (see section 2.4 Inclusive Language)capitalise government, parliament, titles, and states and territories only in full formal titles:­ Territories can be administered by the Australian Government, or they can be granted a right of self-government.­ The Federal or Commonwealth Government is responsible for the conduct of national affairs.­ The Federal Court of Australia was created by the Federal Court of Australia Act 1976 and began to exercise its jurisdiction on 1 February 1977.­ Australia has three levels of government: federal, state/territory and local. The federal government is the highest level of government.­ The Parliament of Australia, officially The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia but commonly referred to as the Commonwealth Parliament or the Federal Parliament, is the legislative branch of the Australian Government.­ The Premier of New South Wales is the head of governmentin the state of New South Wales, Australia.4 Headings and SubheadingsYou must:use black text on a white background to maximise legibilityconform to typography rules (see 8.3 Headings and Subheadings)capitalise each wordfollow a logical hierarchy and clearly differentiate heading levelsuse brief headings choosing informative words that give the main idea of that particular sectionuse numbered headings if cross-referencing is required 3 Findings (Heading 1) 3.1 Benefits of Drinking Coffee (Heading 2) 3.1.1 Caffeine Balance (Heading 3) 3.1.2 Eye Treatment (Heading 3) not use boxed headings:This is a Boxed Heading 3: Calibri Light (Headings), 12pt, Bold5 Bulleted ListsYou must:use bulleted lists to highlight significant aspects of the informationuse correct sentence structure and punctuation:­ introduce a bulleted list by a sentence or as an extension of a sentence attaching a colon at the end­ grammar and capitalisation must follow the same structure of the main introductory sentence­ insert full stop only to end seriesnot add and at the end of the second-last item in the bulleted listuse the bullets symbols as shown in the example illustrationnot indent the first level. Example Illustration A good writing consists of the following: document structuring language ­ plain English ­ punctuation § terminating marks § syntax § spacing ­ spelling ­ inclusive language capitalisation typography. 6 Numbers, Currency and DatesYou must:hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one to ninety-nine when used in a paragraph:­ Twenty-four people were present in the meeting yesterday.hyphenate non-decimal fractions in a paragraph if expressed in words:­ I ate one-third of my bread.write a number in words when starting a sentence in a paragraph:­ Forty-six people were present in the meeting yesterday.use numerals to represent numbers when:­ starting a sentence with a number that cannot be expressed in words:§ $20,876 wasn’t enough to fix the building.§ 1998 was a great year.­ writing technical documents or representing statistical information:§ Our market share has increased by 10.2% since last year.§ There were 20 women in the audience in which 8 of them were over the age of 56.­ ensuring consistency within a body:§ There were 1,800 people attended to the meeting, where 900 people were from Sydney, 400 from Perth and the remaining 500 were from Brisbane.­ the number is lengthy:§  2,054,999rather than two million, fifty-four thousand, nine hundred and ninety-nine.­ writing measurements attached to a symbol:§ We need to travel 50 km to reach home.§ According to the tomorrow’s weathercast, the temperature will drop to 5 °C.­ expressing decimal fractions:§ We will increase the capacity to 6.95 until next month.­ using ordinals with relevant suffixes:§ I will come to visit you on the 3rd of November.§ This piece of art is from the 17th century.­ mathematical expressions in equations:§ express currency in the domestic market using the currency format of ‘$#,##0.00’:­ $5,000.00express currency in the international market using the currency format of ‘A$ #,##0.00’:­ A$5,000.00express dates in full format of ‘dd mmm yyyy’:­ 30 September 2016express percentages with one decimal point when showing calculations:­ 10.8%express time using twelve-hour system:­ The office is open from 10.15 am to 3 pm.use en rule (–) when providing a range without the use of spacing: Grade Code Mark Range Pass P 50—65 7 TypographyThis section sets the standards for typography.7.1 Font, Line and Paragraph SpacingYou must use black text on a white background to maximise legibility. Use Styles (Normal) for prolonged reading in body text with the following settings: Font type Calibri (Body) Font style Regular Font size 11pt Font colour Automatic (black) Text highlight colour No colour Text justification Justified (Ctrl+J) Line spacing in paragraphs 1.15 Line spacing in dot-points 1.15 Paragraph spacing 6 pt. between paragraphs Example:Video provides a powerful way to help you prove your point. When you click Online Video, you can paste in the embed code for the video you want to add. You can also type a keyword to search online for the video that best fits your document.7.2 Bold, Italics and UnderlineYou must:use italics for the titles of published documents, legislation, regulations, technical terms, and foreign words:­ Refer to the latest edition of Style Manual for Authors, Editors and Printers for more information.­ Have you read the Secret by Rhonda Byrne?­ I read the information in an article published in The Sydney Morning Herald.­ In telecommunication, Manchester Coding is a synchronous clock ending technique. ­ We did not know the way and at the end, we found ourselves in a cul de sac.use bold to increase contrast between headlines, key phrases and body text: Example Illustration 1 This example is to show a bold headline, Example Illustration 1. Refer to Section 8.3 to see how bold is used for headings and subheadings. Example Illustration 2 Due to insufficient information, people search for interesting words and phrases, to discover the key message. use underlining to show hyperlinks in a document: Example Illustration See more information on punctuation. not use bold, italics and underline for an entire sentencenot extensively use bold, italics and underline as this will make it difficult for readersnot use to highlight titles of initiatives, plans, projects or programs as these are not published documents.7.3 Headings and SubheadingsFor Word documents, you must use Styles with the following settings for a three-level heading structure:Heading 1: Calibri Light (Headings), 16pt, BoldHeading 2: Calibri Light (Headings), 14pt, BoldHeading 3: Calibri Light (Headings), 12pt, Bold8 LayoutThis section sets the standards for the elements of a document layout.8.1 TablesWhere possible tables should be used to summarise information conforming to the following standards:tables must be preceded by an introductory sentence which briefly explains what is representedinsert 6pt spacing between this introductory sentence and the tabletables must include a caption at the bottom with a number and a brief description of the content table columns and/or rows must be populated with relevant column and/or row headingscells must be easy-to-read incorporating appropriate amount of space, padding, width, and heighttheir size must be aligned to page margins using AutoFit Windowcentre text vertically and align it to the left side of the cellwhen tabling numbers, centre column text horizontally and vertically within the cell (including column headings)wherever possible, justify text in tables (Ctrl + J); however, if this causes typographic anomalies, then align text accordinglyrepeat header rows if a table flows over subsequent pages tables must incorporate the following formal Table Style including borders and not showing gridlines: Column Heading 1 Column Heading 2 Table 1: This is an example of a caption8.2 Illustrations and ChartsImages, diagrams, charts, or any other type of illustrations should be used to depict the idea described in the text. This is to help readers to understand the key information that is difficult to discuss in written text. Regardless of which illustration medium is used, the following standards must be followed:All illustrations, when used in a text manipulation software, must:be meaningful and descriptivebe culturally inclusive and not discriminate against gender, race, age, ethnical background, religious or cultural beliefs, and sexual preferencesbe preceded by an introductory sentence which briefly explains what is representedinsert 6pt spacing between this introductory sentence and the illustrationbe numbered for cross-referencing purposes by inserting a caption at the bottom of the illustration, where this caption must include a brief information describing the contextbe centre-aligned to the pagehave a professional outlookinclude in-text citation (if it’s taken from an external source) and place it at the very end of the captionincorporate a suitable background colour to complement the foreground content ensuring visibilitybe borderless and free of Picture Stylesavoid the use of clip art objects due to low quality be enlarged proportionally without distorting the quality.Charts, when included in a word processing document, must: Chart element Standards colour must be colourful and not monochromatic colours must be easy to distinguish chart elements from each other chart title have a title centred above the chart title must be brief and informative use Calibri Light (Headings), 14pt, Bold with Automatic font colour for chart title axis include descriptive axis titles in both x and y axes (applicable to column, bar and line charts) show axes values in either one decimal point or no decimal point whichever is more suitable use Calibri (Body), 11pt, Automatic font colour for axis titles legend include a legend for all charts describing all key parameters without disrupting its readability use Calibri (Body), 9pt, Automatic font colour for legend items background have white background to complement the foreground content not include gridlines (especially column charts, bar charts and line charts) foreground be simple and clear not be overpopulated with content display units with no decimal point to increase readability (for column, bar and line charts) shape outline charts must be wrapped with a black border with a solid dash data labels mandatory for pie or doughnut charts using percentage format with one decimal point optional for column, bar and line charts (if used, must be presented with only one decimal) use ‘Calibri (Body), 9pt, Automatic font colour’ as the font format presentation be wrapped around by a black outline to be differentiated easily in a document Refer to the following pages to see examples of how the most commonly used chart types must be displayed.Figure 1: Smart Art illustrating Software Development Life CycleFigure 2: Sample column chart with design standards appliedFigure 3: Sample pie chart with design standards appliedFigure 4: Sample line chart with design standards applied8.3 Page LayoutYou must conform to the following page layout standards when presenting spreadsheet output in A4 format: Element Standards Page Margins Narrow Top: 1.27 cm Bottom: 1.27 cm Left: 1.27 cm Right: 1.27 cm Headers and Footers Header 1.0 cm Footer 1.0 cm Orientation Portrait in general. Landscape may be used based on the output required. Gutter 0 cm Gutter position Left Paper A4 – 21cm x 29.7cm Page Border None Page Colour No colour Page Background Blank, no image Page/Section Breaks Main sections must start from a new page using page breaks to ensure consistency Header Blank Footer Document Title Version # (located at bottom-left) Page x of y (located at bottom-right) 9 Citation and Reference ListAny external resources incorporated in A & A Coffee business documents must be acknowledged by inserting in-text citation and a reference list. Details are discussed in the subsequent sections of this section.9.1 In-text CitationsIn-text citations must:be placed where appropriate without distracting the reader: at the end of a sentence before a termination mark, immediately after the name of the author, or at the end of a paragraphbe written based on the Harvard style­ References à Style à Harvardinclude:­ the name of the author­ date­ page number. Example 1 According to Tezcan (2006, pp.122-152), good assessment tools can help students apply their knowledge and gain more skills. Journal Article, reference after the author Example 2 A compliant RTO knows how to incorporate best practices in their daily operations (Tezcan & Long, 2014, pp. 572-574). Book, reference before the termination mark (full stop) 9.2 Reference List (Bibliography)Reference list must:be placed at the end of the document as a separate and standalone sectionhave the heading “References” formatted as Heading 1 (see Section 8.3 Headings & Subheadings)be alphabetically sorted (A to Z)be written based on the Harvard Style. References Tezcan, A. & Long, M., 2014. RTO’s in Australia: Governance and Compliance. 2nd ed. Sydney (NSW): VET Fair Publications. Yilmaz, T., 2006. Helping RTOs Become Compliant. Compliance Articles, 16 May, Volume 845, pp. 122-152. 10 Slideshow PresentationsSlideshow presentations must:conform to all the earlier standards outlined in this Guidehave a professional layout:­ content must fit the margins­ content must not be cluttered­ layout must give a clean and fresh feeling in generalhave a professional format:­ typography must be readable and legible­ font and colour must match the tone of the presentation­ good combination of foreground and background must be employedhave a coherent structure:­ slides must be sequenced logically­ slides must be easy to follow­ headings titles must be descriptivecontent must include:­ an outline­ body­ a conclusioninclude a Reference at the end of the document acknowledging external sourcesvisuals (if any) must be:­ be descriptive­ be relevant­ be appropriate­ not be offensive.