Selecting a diagnosis

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For this paper, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) will be described based on various models and its diagnosis will be presented, as well as its impact on various aspects of the individual. OCD is considered to be an anxiety disorder with DSM-IV code 300.3 from the Axis I disorders of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (American Psychiatric Association, APA, 2000). As its name suggests, an individual with OCD tends to have recurring obsessions along with repetitive actions that cause anxiety or distress to the individual when not done, and in the process causes the said person to become too preoccupied with the act, in such a way that other aspects of life such as socialization, work, among others become greatly affected by it (Dziegielewski, 2010). Various theories are currently available and can be used in order to understand the mechanisms of the disorder using different models of approach. Three Theoretical Models of Psychopathology As of date, there are various factors identified to trigger or develop OCD among individuals. These can range from biological factors such as genetics, infections and neurological disorders, psychological factors such as behavioral and cognitive reactivity, social inhibitions and incompetence, as well as interpersonal factors such as strong, stressful, or powerful life-changing events (Dziegielewski, 2010. Stein, 2002). For this paper, OCD diagnosis will be based on three psychopathological models, starting with the biological model using a combination of neurobiological models with imaging studies, followed by the psychological model using a behavioral approach, and lastly an interpersonal model using family systems studies and approaches. Etiology of OCD According to Biological Model At present, the dominant model of OCD using a biological model is the abnormality of the cortico-striatal circuitry, with particular attention to the orbitofronto-striato-thalamic circuits (OFC) of the brain (Menzies, et al., 2008). Early studies were able to identify the association of this part of the brain with emotions and behavior when researchers observed lesions in some patients exhibiting profound behavioral changes after encountering accidents (Stein, 2002). With regards to the kind of compulsion, there has been observed reduction in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the striatum in patients exhibiting checking and ordering/symmetry compulsions, while an increase in rCBF was observed in the left OFC among patients with washing compulsions, all of which were detected using positron and magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing the brain images of normal and OCD patients (Mataix-Cols, et al., 2005). The reduction in blood flow translates to lesser oxygen and glucose in the affected areas, while an increase in blood flow to other parts cause additional hyperactivity in regions affected, creating imbalances in the different synaptic and cellular processes and abnormal activation of some parts of the brain (Dziegielewski, 2010. Menzies, et al., 2008). It is possible that due to the rewiring of frontostriatal loops, cognitive and motor habits become strongly established, especially when dealing with the repression of anxiety, needs for decision-making, and controlling some of the individual’s emotional processes (Menzies, et al., 2008). Etiology of OCD According to Psychological Model The effects of neurobiologica