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Table of Contents1) Introduction. 32) Suggested Standard Operating Environment. 4a) Productivity. 4b)End of Life Support. 4c) Efficiency. 4d)Flexibility. 4e)Control 42.1. Recommendation and Justification of the Operating System.. 53) Hardware Requirements for Windows 10. 53.1. Possible reuse of Hardware. 64) Operating System Security. 64.1. Justification of Operating System Security. 75) Sharing of Documentation. 85.1) Justification of Sharing Method. 86) Conclusion. 97) References. 10I.     Executive Summary The suggested standard operating environment is Windows 10 because they are using windows 8, the windows are similar as a lot of the functions and icons are same and can easily be learned and get used to so employees don’t need special training to use the new system. The suggested operating system is quite secure it has firewall defender which protects the user and the data from any harm and denies any dangerous data to affect the computer and can be manually controlled and Windows 10 also allows to create group policies so an unauthorized person cannot access with system and probably there will be no chance of stealing confidential documents just authorized persons can access system and see documents. Then mayor asks for hardware requirements so mostly hardware’s they are using is already compatible and is reusable so they don’t need to spend more money on hardware but if required they can always use the old computers by just updating the ram to the requirements of Windows 10. For sharing documents there are a lot of methods that can be used with the new operating system. Due to shortage of budget it is advised that  google drive be used as it is secure and safe and also it  is good choice, it can be used for free and they can access it everywhere they don’t need to carry anything with them they just  need to know there username and password to use google drive and  they can make restrictions and only allow the users they intend to share the documents with.1) IntroductionIn the modern era, any organisation or any govt department cannot survive without proper technology. Technology changes day by day and its importance increase in every field of organisations and govt departments so it should be updated as per requirements like in New York city council are using old operating system and hardware’s and the mayor want to upgrade hardware and operating system that can increase the capability of computers. Mayor asks for a suggestion to have a secure method of sharing documents and minimum costs of upgrading the computers and its operating software because they are already went more than the desired budget. It is not easy to communicate with computers without an operating system.   An operating system is a software that can run applications on computers, operating system includes windows, android, Linux, Apple OS, and hardware include motherboard, ram, hard drive, CPU etc for better performance of computers these operating systems and hard drives need to be upgraded on time to time (Holt, Feveyear and Corrie 2001).2. Suggested Standard Operating EnvironmentAs we all know Windows 8 is being used by different departments and city hall. Windows introduced Windows 10 on 29th July 2015 which we as firm deeply suggest council to update as the Standard Operating system for all the computers (Fisher 2019). Why Windows 10? a) ProductivityChanging to Windows 10 from Windows 8 should be simple.1) Windows 10 has a similar feature of control and navigation like the start menu, desktop items, taskbar and many more. All these features are now also available for touch mode. This will make it easier for previous Windows users to use Windows 10 with ease (Forbes 2015).2) This Operating system now has been systematized across different platforms like mobile phones, tablets, PCs, Xbox and IoT, it also supports future devices or platforms such as Surface Hub and HoloLens (Forbes 2015).3) Windows 10 allows users to opt for the device platform right for the task as it supports all the different types of applications on the tablets, 2 in 1 device touch-enabled devices it appeals the government agencies as it reduces the cost of the hardware and the process to maintain it (Forbes 2015).b) End of Life SupportSupport for Windows 10 will be given till 14 October 2025 so it will be good for next few years and there will be no expenditure on a new OS for upcoming years and can safely use the Windows 10 (Carly 2015).c) EfficiencyWindows 10 has many new features that will help its users to work faster and efficiently. For example, Cortana is a digital assistant which allows users to organise calendars, find files quicker and allow fast access to information they need (BASHA 2015).d) Flexibility There is the business version of Microsoft store which allows users a flexible method manage, acquire and distribute applications to Windows 10 devices it includes not only Windows 10 store apps but also custom build apps for the business and government use (BASHA 2015).e) Control1) Windows 10 will allow the government to take full control over how they want to manage the system. Mobile Device Management allows the IT department to manage the access all the Windows 10 devices either it is mobile, 2 in 1 touch-enabled device or a laptop and also the Internet of Things (BASHA 2015).2) Azure Active Directory allows administrators to maintain one directory by allowing employees with one login which will allow to securely login across all devices with data and settings intact (BASHA 2015).2.1. Recommendation and Justification of the Operating System Windows 10 offers better security and is very user-friendly it protects confidential data and has encryption and authorisation features which allow only authorised personnel to access confidential data. It enables users to do their work on any platform whether it be a tablet or 2 in 1 touch-enabled device. It can secure data by enabling biosecurity by face Id or fingerprint scan.Allowing council to reduce the budget they can buy 2 in 1 touch-enabled devices for some users and tablets for others while allowing PC’s to be used by essential staff which requires a computer by also being future enabled as Windows 10 also support for a very long time and it will not be required to change the Operating system in the foreseeable future as it allows software updates and security updates (Forbes 2015).The best part of upgrading to Windows 10 is its free as all the computers were running on Windows 8 the activation key that was used to activate Windows 8 can also be used to activate Windows 10, once you download Windows 10 from Microsoft and put the Windows 8 activation key it will send back and verify if the key is genuine and once it is confirmed Windows 10 will be activated and the best part of this also is if Microsoft in future do not allow this method to activate Windows 10 it will still be legal and will allow the devices to stay activated for the Windows 10 which was activated by this method (Fish 2019).3. Hardware Requirements for Windows 101) Processor: 1 gigahertz (GHz) or faster processor or SoC2) RAM: 1 gigabyte (GB) for 32-bit or 2 GB for 64-bit3) Hard disk space: 16 GB for 32-bit OS or 20 GB for 64-bit OS4) Graphics card: DirectX 9 or later with WDDM 1.0 driver5) Display: 800 x 600(“Windows 10” 2019)The hardware used by the city council right now is as follows:1) 550 Desktop PC’s (1GHZ CPU, 1MB RAM, 16GB HDD)2) 300 Desktop PC’s (1.4GHZ CPU, 2GB RAM, 64GB HDD)3) 200 Desktop PC’s (2.4GHZ CPU, 8 GB RAM, 128GB HDD)3.1. Possible reuse of Hardware300 Desktop PC’s with 1.4GHZ CPU, 2GB RAM, 64GB HDD AND 200 Desktop PC’S with 2.4GHZ CPU. 8GB RAM, 128GB HDD can be reused and Windows 10 supports it and can be installed which saves a lot of money without buying new hardware only thing required is to download the software. If more PC’s are required 550 computers which has 1MB RAM can be replaced with 1GB RAM which will support after determining how many PC’s are required we can choose to replace some PC’s with tablets or 2 in 1 touch-enabled devices which will decrease the energy use and cost of maintaining the PC’s and will ease the access to its users and it will be more convenient as it will not be fixed to a place (Forbes 2015). as Windows 10 support different devices. So, it is possible to reuse the hardware which was previously being used by the city council.4. Operating System Security  One of the challenges faced by government agencies is to fight against advancing cyber danger. Windows 10 has a wide variety of tools and process to tackle such threats and keep secure important data (Forbes 2015).Some of the tools and processes are as follows: -1) The main vulnerability for any security environment is using passwords, it can be effortlessly hacked to gain access to important data and resources. Windows 10 helps agencies by limiting access and give access to authorised personnel’s by integrated 2-factor authorisation by asking for facial recognition or fingerprint (Forbes 2015).  2) Windows Information Protection (WIP) previously known as Enterprise Data Protection (EDP) prevents possible data leakage without causing any problems to the employee experience. It also prevents accidental data leak on the employee’s work device and also the personal device which they use to send data. It separates personal data from work data without any need to switch environments (Windows 10 2019).3) Hardware-based security also increases protection against any attacks. Trusted Platform Module is an accepted chip, it has capabilities like Secure Boot, and it helps to stop malware from connecting itself with hardware. There is a new attribute called Device Guard and it makes sure that only authorised applications and code run on the device (Forbes 2015).4) Windows 10 has its own security known as Windows Defender which is much better than its predecessors operating systems. It scans for threats, viruses and malware continuously it is a real-time protection and it also downloads security updates to keep the device safe from any new threats (‘Stay Protected with Windows Security” 2019).4.1. Justification of Operating System Security  Windows 10 has its own security and allows users to get the latest antivirus protection against the new threats and it protects its users from the time you turn the computer on it have different protection for files, internet and you can also manually run scans to detect any threats. It not only gives the administrator to limit access and give access to authorised personnel but also protects the users who usually go on the internet and are vulnerable to countless threats. The Windows Information Protection protects the important data on the computer and gives a better experience to the user (Forbes 2015). It allows users to schedule the scan from time to time which is good as the IT personnel will not have to check every PC daily if it’s already scheduled (‘Stay Protected with Windows Security” 2019). It allows the administrator to put security measures such as facial recognition or fingerprint which will allow the important data to be more secure (Forbes 2015).Windows 10 has much better security than its predecessor and will continuously be updated to stay up to date to the new threats (BASHA 2015).Windows 10 also includes a windows defender firewall as mentioned above which helps to fight against different types of malware, viruses and hackers. The job of the Windows defender is to protect the data of the computer and also the identity of the user (Ballew, 2019).Why firewalls are important?If we compare the firewall in the physical world so it can be interpreted in simple words that it is a huge wall protecting us against the fire and different kinds of harm by standing between the person and the dangerous things behind the wall (Henry 2005).Windows defender does the same thing but in the digital world protects the data and user from any harm it protects the data packets in the computer. Its jobs include monitoring data that comes and goes out of the computer, for example, it monitors websites and emails and makes the conclusion whether it is safe or not (Ballew, 2019). The data that has no threat is allowed to pass and the data which can be dangerous is denied by it. It works the same as the physical firewall it is just a simple explanation of the technical word (Ballew, 2019).Though the firewall has been set to default active it can be managed manually to block a program or the applications to pass data without any block and it also gives the option to turn it off but this not advised if you don’t have any other anti-virus programs like McAfee or Norton (Ballew, 2019).Group policy another amazing feature of Windows 10 it allows the administrator to either centralize or make it a local policy in this the administrators has the power to either restrict operations to the certain or all users as suggested by the term local and central it is a wonderful feature in Windows 10 this can include restricting access to particular folder or any other type of data that the admin does not want to share with certain users. And can also be used to encrypt the data with password and only the users that know the password are allowed to access the files it has many other features that make it a really good security feature that can work for many users and can be controlled by the administrators which reduce the risk of leak of the important data (CHRIS, 2016).5) Sharing of DocumentationMany organisations face a lot of challenges for data sharing and they want to share a document without any theft of data. Before technology revolution organisations used to share documents via post or other traditional ways in printed of (McAughtrie 2016). Now in the modern technological era, there are a lot of ways of saving and sharing documents online. In these online methods authorized persons access these documents, authorized persons can see these documents and some authorized can edit these documents on online sharing applications, sites, such as google drive. Google drive can be introduced to the system as it is one of the most convenient ways of sharing data. Google drive is software from google which was invented in April 2012 and this allows the users of it to share data with other preferred users (Brigham 2014). The shared data stays secure as it is not available to anyone other than those who have an administrative permit (Brigham 2014). The drive is also cheaper than other data sharing options and also allows a good amount of free space to its users, which can also make it easy for the company to stay in a budget. 5.1) Justification of Sharing MethodThe google drive is a very flexible application which can be used in any operating system and even the using option is very simple as there is no need of installing the application as well and just browsing in the internet and using the email account google drive can be accessed and the data that is created and edited stays saved and secured without any hustle (Piper 2005). It is a single platform where everything is included, for example, google docs, google slides, google photos, everything can be accessed and used by any permitted users, so there is no need of using any other additional platform (Brigham 2014). A google drive is a portable option for the users as they do not require to carry it everywhere, all the data are saved in the cloud and it can be accessed from anywhere.6) ConclusionIt is recommended that the Standard operating system be Windows 10 as it is secure and free to upgrade to which saves a lot of money as buying a new operating system is expensive, this would resolve the difficulty that the council faces with no extra cost.  Windows 10 supports a lot of software and has tools which will be useful in the daily day to day business of the government. Most of the hardware is supports the Windows 10 and as mayor said they need to cut back on computers but if required the computers that are not compatible due to less ram, though it can be upgraded to the required ram that supports Windows 10 which will not only reduces the expense but also fulfil the mayor’s wishes to decrease the number of computers. Security of Windows 10 is better than the Windows 8 it has its own firewall and it is updated regularly to tackle new threats and the devices can also be encrypted with facial recognition and fingerprint sensor to secure it more on the important data and can only be accessible to authorised users which make the security top-notch and allows them to be up to date to the latest trends. As for the sharing of documentation google drive is suggested which is quick and can be accessed from anywhere and is free of cost till certain storage but it also allows it users to allow the administrator to restrict access and only allow the authorised people as it an online cloud-based document sharing system even if the computer is broken the files can be restored from the cloud and can be updated from one computer and the progress can be seen by the administrator and also be shared by as many people as possible.7) References1. Brigham, Tara J. 2014. “Taking Advantage Of Google’s Web-Based Applications And Services”.Medical Reference Services Quarterly33 (2): 202-210. doi:10.1080/02763869.2014.897521.2. McAughtrie, David. 2016. “10 Methods To Improve The Efficiency Of Document Sharing For Your Project”. Blog.Unit4 Blog. Piper, Paul S. 2005. “Google And Privacy”.Internet Reference Services Quarterly10 (3-4): 195-203. doi:10.1300/j136v10n03_17.4. Forbes, Insights. 2015. “Windows 10: A New Operating System For Government IT”. Blog.Microsoft Industry Blogs. 2) Holt, John, Duncan Feveyear, and Nick Corrie. 2001. “Do We Need Yet Another Office PC Upgrade?”.OR Insight14 (3): 3-12. doi:10.1057/ori.2001.10.6. “Stay Protected With Windows Security”. 2019.Support.Microsoft.Com. Fish, Tom. 2019. “Windows 10: Can You Get Windows 10 For Free? Is There A Free Download Of Windows 10?”.Express.Co.Uk. BASHA, ERIC. 2015. “Six Reasons Why Governments Should Upgrade To Windows 10 – Microsoft Industry Blogs”.Microsoft Industry Blogs. Carly, page. 2015. “Windows 10 Will Reach End Of Life On 14 October 2025 | Theinquirer”.Http://Www.Theinquirer.Net. “Windows 10”. 2019.Answers.Microsoft.Com. “Protect Your Enterprise Data Using Windows Information Protection (WIP) (Windows 10)”. 2019.Docs.Microsoft.Com. Fisher, Tim. 2019. “Windows 10: Everything You Need To Know”.Lifewire. Ballew, J. (2019).Find and Use the Windows 10 Firewall. Lifewire. CHRIS, H. (2016).What Is “Group Policy” in Windows?.How-To Geek. Henry, Paul A. 2005. “Firewall Considerations for the IT Manager.”Information Systems Security14 (5) (Nov): 29-51.