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Role of Nature and Nurture in Perceptions about Sensory Information

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The present assignment has identified that animals have the ability to distinguish objects, which becomes possible from their reactions to applications of stimuli. However, the nature of such perceptions relates to only surmising. Difficulties faced in examining animals relate to whether they fail to respond because of the need to perceive or because of the reluctance to do so. Recent research has clearly indicated that the great apes have similar language abilities as human beings, in terms of perceptions relative to sensory information. In fact, considerable controversy has been created by suggestions that there is a similarity in the language ability of apes and human beings (Terrace et al, 1979). The accuracy or inaccuracy of sensory information is determined by the distinction between sensations and perceptions and to what extent they vary in relation to how the different terms are defined. A second factor that determines the extent of accuracy in this regard is that perceptions are dependent upon the impact of learning through taste, touch, smell, and hearing. Thirdly, vision is the most important factor that is considered to impact sensory information. Researchers have been focusing upon the constituent components of visual perception and the need to analyze organized wholes because humans are prone to relate to patterns. Moreover, visual objects have the tendency to remain stable in spite of constantly altering stimulus characteristics such as contrast of figure arrangements, perspectives, and ambient light. This allows observers to relate perceptions of objects with objects as they are understood to be existent. In this regard, perceptions are known to be impacted by values, ideas, needs, expectations and conflicts (Baddeley, 2005). Sensory memory is believed to be the shortest-term component of memory because it retains pictures of sensory information following the ending of the initial stimuli. Sensory memory is also a virtual buffer for stimuli and comes from the five senses of touch, taste, smell, hearing, and vision that are absorbed accurately, although for a brief time. For instance, the accuracy of sensory information is evident from the fact that when we look at something, we remember what it looked like, even if it is observed for a single second. This is an example of sensory memory (Baddeley, 2005). There are a number of factors that contribute to the accuracy of sensory data. Just as it happens in any measurement system, sensory evaluation is also prone to being a source of error. There are factors that impact the accuracy and precision of sensory data and thus lessen its reliability. Psychological factors arise in view of using human subjects as tools of measurement. Despite instructions being issued and training being given by organizers to panelists, a great deal of confusion arises in regard to the details of the instructions and the choice of sensory scales. Thus, there is all likelihood that individual panelists could have different interpretations of sensory characteristics and intensity levels. Moreover, the decision-making process could also change within the same study, thus creating uncertainties. Different panel members may have different focus levels whereby some could be distracted or experience fatigue, which impacts sensory abilities. A large number of experimental designs can strongly impact the reliability and accuracy of data. This is because it is crucial for samples to be presented, which also requires that they have to be standardized in the context of nonassociative coding, lighting conditions, temperature, and form.