Poverty in Africa can be explained in terms of the impact of colonization. The European colonization process that was experienced in the 19th Century played an important role in the strengthening of Africa’s trail of institutions. According to Mills 51, African countries experienced very brutal forms of colonization. Hence, during the colonization process, there was a lot of exploitation of the natural resources that were endowed in the African continent. This was mainly for the benefit of the colonialists as opposed to the benefit of the African population. Much of the prime arable land was taken up by colonialists and the exploitation of the minerals and natural resources were undertaken by the colonialists (Mills, 51).
The attainment of independence in the 20th Century was marked with a lot of expectation from the African continent. Therefore independence was used to imply the end of suffering and the beginning of economic development in Africa as a continent. The African led forms of governments were tasked with the responsibilities of delivering the promises that were made during the struggle for liberation from the colonial rule. However, independence did not deliver the expected results. Instead of economic stagnation, political unrest and social decay were experienced within the African continent. These factors therefore greatly contributed to the soaring levels of unemployment and poverty within the African region (Gyimah-Boadi, 11-12).
Another main reason for the existence of poverty within the African region despite being endowed with various natural resources involves the fact that even after independence colonial structures are still intact. As evident in most countries there are various issues in relation to land distribution. There is privatization of large trucks of land that has left the poor to become even poorer while those who are rich and possess influence have enriched themselves with the positions that they hold in government. The rich are further engaged in the exploitation of natural resources for their own benefits.