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ENSO is a periodic climate pattern that occurs across the Pacific Ocean, primarily on the tropical band. The southern oscillation refers to the differences on the tropical part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. The cooling down of the southern oscillation (or oceanic phase) is termed La Niña and the warming up is called El Niño. Southern Oscillation also refers to air surface pressure on the tropical part of the Western Pacific Ocean. These two variations occur by pairs: El Niño, or the warm oceanic phase, is accompanied by high air surface pressure in the Western Pacific and the La Niña, or the cold oceanic phase, is accompanied by low air surface pressure, also in the Western Pacific.These differences and oscillations can cause extreme weather conditions such as floods and droughts. This occurs in different parts of the world. The countries that are mostly agricultural, like most Third World countries along the Pacific Ocean that depend of crops for food and fishing, are the ones that are mostly affected.However, the popular term of ENSO is just El Niño, or Little Boy in Spanish. This is because the people in South America observed that the phenomenon occurs around Christmas, and the Little Boy refers to Jesus Christ. La Niña is called so because it is opposite the meaning of El Niño. La Niña means Little Girl in Spanish. Sometimes, it is called the anti-El Niño.The La Niña phenomenon is usually preceded by El Niño. During La Niña, the sea surface temperature in the tropical part of the Eastern Pacific Ocean would be lower than the normal value by 3 to 5 degrees Celsius (as opposed to El Niño having high surface temperatures, in which the temperature of the waters increases by 0.5 degrees Celsius). If the temperature drop occurs for five months straight, that can be called La Niña. The El Niño phenomenon occurs longer from nine months to two years! La Niña is not as famous