Questions about Managing People

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Secondly, by being in the ASEAN region culture plays a big role in terms of dictating how individuals behave. In this region, individuals are expected to think, act and live collectively as members of a family and or group. Those who do not are rejected by society. The dabbawalah organisation provides an environment within which the employees can satisfy both their existence needs and relatedness needs. The sense of belonging, affiliation and meaningful interpersonal relationships is as important as the physiological material needs in collectivist societies such as the Indian society. In the case Sapan Mare confirms this when he states that his family has been in the tiffin business for four generations. It is therefore likely that the tiffin-walahs are driven to increase their performance by the strong affiliation they have and the sense of ownership of the business. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: Vroom’s expectancy theory states that motivational force is a combination of valence and expectancy. Valence is the anticipated satisfaction from an outcome whereas expectancy is a perception of the degree of probability that the choice of a particular action will actually lead to the desired outcome (Mullins 2010a). … It could also be argued that there is some form of external pressure from either family or society for tiffin-walahs to join the trade. With these two arguments, and taking into consideration that the culture here is largely collectivist, it is possible to conceive that tiffin-walahs get satisfaction in joining the ancestral business. This high sense of ownership implies that their valence is high. Secondly the fact that they are also shareholders compels them to work harder thus increasing their expectancy. According to Vroom’s expectancy equation, combining the high valence and high expectancy equates to a high motivational force (Mullins 2010a). High motivational force makes the tiffin-walahs to increase their level of performance which results in the overall Six Sigma capabilities of the organisation. Herzberg’s two factor theory: Herzberg’s theory states that there are two sets of factors, hygiene and motivating factors, which affect motivation and job satisfaction. Hygiene factors are extrinsic to the job and are concerned with the job environment. They prevent dissatisfaction. Motivation is largely affected by the other set of factors, motivators, which are related to the job content (Mullins 2010a). From the evaluation so far one can identify that the dabbawalah scores highly in term of extrinsic factors while its intrinsic factors are not as remarkable. Example of the dabbawalah service’s extrinsic factors include: a very sociable job, strong policies on discipline and offences and job security – it lasts for as long as the member is strong enough to do the work (from Case Study). However, according to Herzberg’s theory, the factors we have listed above have no effect on satisfaction,