Prostate cancer in minority

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Pro cancer in minority Introduction Pro cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the pro a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine glandof the male reproductive system in most mammals (Romer and Parson, 1977). Though most prostate cancer cells are slow growing, there has been cases of rapidly proliferating prostate cancer cells (American Cancer Society, 2010). The cancerous cell spread to other parts of the body and can cause pain, difficulty in urinating, problems during sexual intercourse, or erectile dysfunction (American Cancer Society, 2010). Though the specific cause of prostate cancer remains unknown, several factors such as diet, genetic, medication exposure and viral infection, have been implicated in its development. Although most cases of prostate cancer are symptom-free, the cancer is usually indicated by symptoms, physical examination, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), or biopsy. To ascertain if the cancer has spread, CT scans and bone scans, may be performed. Prostate cancer is the most common type of cancer among U.S. men and the second cause of cancer death, trailing lung cancer in the U.S as well as the U.K. report from the American Cancer Society shows that prostate cancer is least common among Asian men and most common among black men, with figures for white men in between (American Cancer Society, 2010). Various treatment options with the intent to cure are available for prostate cancer. These include surgery, radiation therapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, proton therapy, hormonal therapy, chemotherapy, cryosurgery, and high intensity focused ultrasound. Prostate cancer in minority Minority group is any group that is disadvantage with respect to a dominant group in terms of social status, education, employment, wealth and political power in a given geo-political entity. In the U.S., various minority groups exist and of particular interest are the African-Americans, who are the largest racial minority. Other minority groups are the American Indians Asian Americans Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, other Pacific Islander and the Hispanic and Latino Americans. These minority groups account for one-third of the U.S. population but they are expected to become the collective majority by the year 2050. African-Americans men have the highest rate of prostate cancer in the world. In the U.S. prostate cancer has a higher incidence rates and a greater mortality rates among African-Americans than among any other ethnic group (President’s Cancer Panel, 2010). Indeed, national figures shows a 60% higher incidence rate than White American men and 240% mortality rate than white American men (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). These figures did not suggest that African-Americans are more prone to developing prostate cancer. rather, according Judd W. Moul, MD, FACS and Professor and Chief of the Division of Urology at Duke University Medical Center, African Americans have higher risk of developing prostate cancer at an earlier age than white men (Center for Disease Control and Prevention). Thus with early detection, African-American men have the same outcome as their white counterpart. Furthermore, figures also shows that one in every four African-American gets prostate cancer with African-American men in North Carolina having one of the highest death rates from prostate cancer (American Cancer Society, 2010). Some notable Africans and African-Americans that have been diagnose with prostate cancer include Sidney Poitier, Nelson Mandela, Les Brown, Desmond Tutu, Maynard Jackson, Ben Carson, Harry Belafonte, Colin Powell, Louis Farrakhan. The degree to which prostate cancer affects the Hispanic population in the US is less clear. Historically, Hispanics have had an incidence and a mortality rate lower than those seen among White American men (Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007). Reports from the American Cancer Society also show that the risk of prostate cancer is higher in a Hispanic man who is older or who has a family history of it. Asian Americans and Pacific Islander have incidence rate that is lower than those seen among Hispanic men while American Indian and Alaska Natives has the lowest incidence rate. Furthermore figures from the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (2007) shows that among the minorities, African-Americans are black men were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other group. Following African-Americans are Hispanic men, American Indian and Alaska Native, with Asian Americans and Pacific Islander having the lowest mortality rate. References American Cancer Society. (2010). What Is Prostate Cancer? American Cancer Society.Information and Resources for Cancer: Breast, Colon, Prostate, Lung and Other Forms. Web. 15 June 2010. Retrieved 30 April 2011 Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2007). Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved 30 April 2011 President’s Cancer Panel. (2010). America’s Demographic and Cultural Transformation: Implications for Cancer. President’s Cancer Panel, 2009 – 2010 Annual Report. Romer, A. S. amp. Parsons, T. S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. p.395