Proposal for an experimental design to detect regions of DNA for diagnostics or forensic purposes

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This is what has taken my interest in choosing this molecular target. This paper, hence, seeks to produce a proposal for an experimental design to detect regions of DNA for diagnostics or forensic purposes. It is important to make certain that a complete DNA of every individual is unique, except for identical twins (Stephens, 2006). Therefore, a DNA fingerprint, also known as DNA typing, is a DNA pattern with a unique sequence so that it can be differentiated from the patterns of other individuals. Thus, my molecular target is the DNA fingerprint. Identification of the Named Target (DNA Fingerprint) DNA fingerprinting is based on analysed DNA from the genome regions that separate genes referred to as introns (regions inside a gene which are not part of the protein encoded by the gene). Introns are spliced out during RNA messenger processing, an intermediate molecule allowing DNA to encode protein. This is particularly different to the analysis of DNA for mutations that cause disease. This is because most of the mutations entail the gene regions (exons) that encode protein. In the identification of this named target (DNA fingerprint), we can also assert that DNA fingerprinting often involves introns since exons are mainly conserved and have much less variability in their pattern and sequence (Pena, 2000). Originally, DNA fingerprinting was used for identification of genetic diseases via linking the genes of a disease within a given family with the basis of inheritance of the markers and the possibility that segregating markers would be in close proximity. However, DNA fingerprinting can also be used for forensic science and criminal investigations. The courts in the United States also accept the reliability of DNA analysis (Rider, 2007). However, the cost of testing, the accuracy of the results, and the misapplication of the technique have resulted in many controversial concerns with the technique, hence the basis of this study. Steps Required for a Suitable Experiment from Sample Collection through to Data Analysis In forensic laboratories, various steps are followed in the analysis of DNA for various reasons. After collecting human samples such as semen, blood, urine, saliva, tissues, hair, bones, or buccal (cheek cells), DNA is extracted from the samples and analysis is carried out in a forensic laboratory. The results from the DNA analysis are then compared to the actual DNA analysis from the identified (known) samples. The DNA that was extracted from the samples collected from a scene of crime can then be compared and matched possibly with the samples of DNA extracted from the suspect or victim (Landis, 2008b). During extraction of DNA from a cell, it may be done from two different sources. DNA can be extracted from the cell nucleus which contains information making individual human beings who they really are. The other source may be cell organelles known as the mitochondrion that produces energy driving all the processes of the cell necessary for life. Nuclear DNA is often analysed within evidence including semen, blood, body tissues, saliva, and hair follicles. On the other hand, DNA extracted from the mitochondrion is often analysed with evidence consisting of bones, hair fragments, and teeth. It is also important that where there is an inadequate amount of sample, preference be given to mitochondrial DNA analysis (Landis,