tile stimulation, contrastive stress drill, prompts for restructuring oral muscular phonetic targets (PROMPT), and melodic intonation therapy (Wambaugh et al., 1998). Word prompt programs are computer software programs used in addition to basic word processing (Wood, Rankin, Beukelman, 1997). Sound production treatments have also been tried (Wambaugh et al., 1999). The Kaufman Speech Praxis Treatment Kit has been used for treating children with apraxia of speech (Kaufman Children’s center, n.d).
Wambaugh &. Doyle, 1994, made a review of 28 treatment reports over the past 20 years. Positive results were noted with the following treatments: flexible treatment hierarchy combined with home programs. combination of sound placement, sound drill and graphic stimulation. metronome pacing accompanying drill of all behaviors. package modeling, integral stimulation, phonetic placement, multiple repetitions. PROMPT system and integral stimulation. and PROMPT motokinesthetic stimulation with some rate control. The majority of subjects were chronic apraxic speakers, with 62% being 6 months post onset.
Currently, although most treatments have reported good results, most current AOS treatments have limited data to support their use, and there is a lack of replication of treatment findings (Wambaugh, 2002). Another limitation is the lack of measurement of generalization and maintenance effects of treatment (Wambaugh et al., 1998).
Chumpelik is credited for developing the PROMPT (Prompts for Restructuring Oral and Muscular Phonetic Targets) system in 1984. This is a tactile–kinesthetic based treatment method, originally developed for the treatment of children with developmental motor speech disorders. later, it was modified for use in adults with motor speech disorders (Bose et al., 2001)
Prompts are applied to the mylohyoid muscle, facial musculature and through mandibular manipulation. Some or all of the following parameters receive input from PROMPTs: spatial