These are the challenges to be solved in the 21st century (UNESCO, 2001). As the process of globalization takes effect and incorporates the political, social, and cultural changes in the society, these problems tend to be global in character, and unified by globalization (UNESCO, 2001). The problems being faced by humanity are global in nature. they are in most cases not localized in particular regions as the world becomes a global village, meaning political boundaries are losing their relevancy towards a global united nation.
The development of applied ethics has made it difficult for policymakers to talk about problems without relating these problems to real-world decisions, relating to how people should live (Cafaro, 2011). The use of Kantianism makes us address our treatment of animals (Korsgaard, 2004), while eudemonism makes us apply the Aristotelian insights to develop ethics (Nassbaum, 2000). Through efforts that have been made in the above philosophies, it is possible to understand the purpose of ethical theories, and the natural limits. a situation that could not have been arrived at without understanding of these theories (Cafaro, 2011). It is through the application of these ethical theories that scholars have been able to call for better and more ethical 21st century in all the above factors.
Currently, environmental concerns are worthy of a discussion in their own rights. Many scholars are currently predicting a serious ecological catastrophe if humanity continues on its current economic path of resource depletion, and other economic activities having serious adverse effects to the environment (Cafaro, 2011). Human beings are all that matters in making ethical decisions (Cafaro, 2011), and individuals have to be the sole focus in making decisions regarding values and concern.