Collectivism refers to the pattern, representing cultures
"in which people from birth onwards are integrated into strong, cohesive in-groups, which throughout people’s lifetime continue to protect them in exchange for unquestioning loyalty" (Hofstede, 1980, p. 51)
Power distance means the extent to which power inequality is accepted. Power distance is high in Malaysia Guatemala and Panama. It is low in Denmark Israel Austria. For individuals in high distance cultures power is the main issue of society, and stress coercive power. In low distance communities, people suppose that power should be only used when it is legitimate (Collins and Porras, 2004).
Uncertainty avoidance means the extent to which people feel threatened and respond by setting up rules. Uncertainty avoidance is high in Greece Portugal Guatemala, and is low in Denmark Jamaica Singapore.
The dimension of Masculinity versus Femininity determines gender relations in society and extent to which values of achievement, money power, etc are more important than nurturing &. community. Masculine features dominant in such countries as Japan Austria Venezuel. Feminine cultures are Netherlands Norway Sweden.
Confucian dynamism determines the differences between two parts of the world, East and West. The cultures with high scores of this dimension are China Hong Kong Taiwan. Countries with low scores are Philippines Nigeria Pakistan.
Question 2 Organizational behavior is influenced by each aspect which determines its values and cultural principles. Each of the factors, identified by Hofstede, individualism-collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance and masculinity versus femininity influence the organization. Hofstede underlines that these dimensions are independent and have a great impact on values and perceptions questions (Athos and Coffey 2004).
The uniqueness of individualists is that they have:
emphasise the ‘I’.
people detach themselves from family
they change friends and marital partners.
Power distance influences:
dominant norms of inequality
the degree of respect
deference given to those in superior positions.
Uncertainty avoidance relates to planning and stability in organization behavior process. In societies with high uncertainty avoidance, there is a desire for consensus, and deviant behavior is intolerable. In high uncertainty avoidance cultures, people do not judge inter-group interactions.
In organizations, masculinity and feminine factors determines
achievement and interpersonal harmony,
the social implications of being male or female.
stress quality of life, nurturance, close personal relationships
Confucian dynamism influences
the ordering of relationships by status.
a sense of shame.
Hofstede analyses and defines uniqueness and peculiarities of world cultures and their impact on business relations. The Hofstede pays a special attention to organizational practices taken place on the global scale. One common understanding, however, seems to be that it is related to human values one way or the other.
Athos, A. G. and R. E. Coffey, 2004, Behavior in Organizations: A Multidimensional View,
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Collins, J., Porras, J. I. 2004,