Orems Theory Of Nursing

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It centers on the individual and his problem, not around the medical illness that the person is suffering from. Orem identified three categories of self-care requisites, universal self-care requisites, developmental self-care requisites, and health-deviation self-care requisites. The theory of self-care deficits proposes that nursing care is necessary when individuals are affected by any limitations that prevent them to meet their self-care needs. Therefore, self-care deficits, not a medical diagnosis, determine the needs for nursing care. According to Orem, the only legitimate need for nursing care is when a self-care deficit exists. Orem’s self-care theory is based on the concepts of self-care, self-care agency, self-care requisites, and therapeutic self-care demand. The theory of self-care deficits describes and explains when people need nursing care. Orem specifies five methods that nurses use to help meet the self-care needs of the patient. These are acting for or doing for another, guiding and directing, providing physical or psychological support, providing and maintaining an environment that supports personal development, and teaching. Acting or doing for another may include the three requisites of universal, developmental, and health deviation, and the last four relate only when the client has needs related to health deviation. The third main theory of Orem is known as the Theory of Nursing Systems. According to this, the nurse determines and assesses the legitimate need for nursing care depending on the ability of the client to meet self-care needs based on whether or not actually a deficit exists. If a deficit exists, then the nurse plans care that identifies the roles of the nurse, the client, or the family. Collectively, the actions of all these agencies are known as the nursing system, and Orem identified three categories of nursing system, wholly compensatory,partly compensatory, and supportive-educative.