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One is Driven to the Cynical Thought that Men are Decent Only When They are Powerless

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In order to achieve the totalitarian goal, those in power resort to various kinds of propaganda, and it is the false propaganda which leads to miseries and unhappiness, believes Orwell. He reconstructs the events of the Russian Revolution in his novel by using animals as his characters, and as a parable, Animal Farm has secured a firm place in literature. Each important character needs a close examination here to bring out the parallelism clearly. Each character and idea given in Animal Farm serves as a metaphor for the persons and ideas in the Russian revolution. The animal spirit behind the revolution in the novel is animalism which stands for communism. This spirit originates from Old Major, a pig, which was happy to have completed a long life. Before he dies he imparts what he gained as experience and knowledge from his long association with human beings to his fellow animals. The essence of his advice is remember always your duty of enmity towards Man and all his ways. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy. Whatever goes on four legs, or has wings, is a friend (Orwell). Old major is a metaphor for Karl Marx and Lenin. He creates the ideas needed for animalism and with his powerful vocabulary he injects the spirit of animalism into other animals. This is how the novel begins. Before the revolution, the animals had been living in Manor Farm owned by Mr. Jones. When Old Major dies his ardent disciples, Napoleon and Snowball, come forward to lead the animals for a revolution after waiting for an appropriate chance.