Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

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The prevalence has not proved to be influenced by ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or educational achievement. OCD is more common than schizophrenia, and almost half as common as depression. Yet little is known about the illness, its causes, and effective treatment. OCD is still largely under-recognized in clinical practice, while its economic costs are essential.Obsessive-compulsive disorder emerges as early as age 4. In case it is not treated at once it may have profound impacts. Though males have shown to develop the disorder earlier than females, women have demonstrated a lager predisposing to it, being especially at risk of developing OCD during pregnancy and the puerperium. On the other hand, the symptoms of the illness are more severe among men (Fineberg and Roberts, 2001. Thomsen, 2000. Heyman, et al, 2006. Freeman et al., 2007).Both the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, 4th edition (DSM-IV) and the World Health Organization International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) recognize obsessions and compulsions as the main symptoms of OCD. Obsessions are unwanted, repetitive, disturbing thoughts, images, ideas, or impulses running through the person’s mind over and over again. These are not merely excessive worries about real-life problems. These thoughts, being generated by the individual, are distressing and egodystonic. The individual recognizes that the obsessional images, thoughts, and impulses are a product of his own mind, but they make him feel nervous and afraid. Trying to avoid these feelings people with OCD start performing certain actions (rituals or compulsions) corresponding to the rules they have created for themselves. So compulsions are repetitive, time-consuming, stereotyped, anxiety-reducing rituals (behaviors or mental acts), driven in response to the obsessions, and according to rules that must be implemented rigidly.