Nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods

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Fakhar et al. (2013) aimed to measure the pain anxiety related to change of dressing in admitted burn patients with age ranging from 18 to 60 years. The inclusion was only of 2nd degree burns (9-35% Total Body Surface Area-TBSA) and other burn degrees were excluded. Inclusion criteria meant people who are representative of the study and exclusion criteria meant people who may cause bias or hurt themselves. It is an experimental randomized clinical trial (RCT) with two groups. RCT is on the second top of hierarchy besides RCT can affect the decision-making if the sample size is calculated appropriately. RCTs are the useful trials that could admit the generalization of cause and affect relationships between intervention introduced and outcome measure. Sample size was estimated using power analysis to have a representative group. This power analysis helps to estimate the sample needed in experimental and control groups to support the findings as outlined by Burns and Grove (2009). The experimental group used jaw relaxation technique while the control group used usual medication care only without specifying it as this counted a weakness against the study. Randomization of allocation is done to ensure similarities in groups with a six months’ time period. Experimental group was taught to master jaw relaxation for 20 minutes and then asked to rate their pain anxiety level before dressing and again 15-20 minutes after the dressing.