Nanomaterials and their Applications in Solar Cells

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Solar energy is the best energy source in terms of its availability, distribution, and environmental impact.
Nanotechnology, with its unprecedented control over the structure of materials, can manufacture efficient and inexpensive solar cells on large scale. Nanotechnology is producing some significant advantages in solar cells to increase the efficiency/cost ratio by using nanomaterials with suitable bandgaps (Zweibel 2000). Nanomaterials enhance the effective optical path and significantly decrease the probability of charge recombination. Nano-structured CDs as a window layer, CdTe as an absorber layer and TiO2 electrodes are of interest as in thin film solar cells.
The quest for alternative fuels has become one of science’s major pre-occupations and finding ways cost-effectively produce energy from the sun is a key battlefront. The usage of solar cells results in many useful features like require less maintenance effort, avoid the release of toxic gases or other noises and mainly avoid transmission losses and costs.
Also, the solar cells available today are not considered feasible when compared to the non-renewable sources.1 The solar cells manufactured at present are low in efficiency and very expensive if they have to be used to generate electricity on a large scale. We are interested in using the valuable features of nanotechnology so that we can manufacture efficient and cheaper solar cells in large quantities.