Motivation leadership style and performance management

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This essay is structured in different sections, with each section dealing with one factor of crucial influence on performance. The first section discusses the various theories of motivation including the works of Maslow (1943), Alderfer (1972), McClelland (1955) and evaluates the impact of motivation on the group’s performance. The second section discusses theories of leadership by XYZ, and assesses the impact of leadership style on the performance of our group. The third section of the essay covers performance measurement as the factor that impacts on the team performance. The final section of this essay covers my conclusions and the recommendations that can help in better performance management. The first factor that I intend to relate to performance of team is motivation. Motivation has been one of the most studied and discussed topics relevant to performance. According to one of the oldest and most popular theories of motivation, motivation is the result of drives or needs that human beings have. For example, Maslow’s Theory of Hierarchy of Needs (1943) states that there are several stages of needs, like the basic needs for food, shelter and security. social needs related to feeling a sense of belongingness or affection, status and self-esteem needs, and self-actualization needs. As a person is able to fill his lower order needs, the higher order needs become operant and motivate him. See Figure 1 below: Figure 1: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Source: Maslow, 1943). Another version of the derive theory is that proposed by Alderfer (1972), which segregates these needs into only three categories – ERG or existence, Relatedness and Growth needs. According to Alderfer (1972), all three types of needs can be operational at the same time. Similarly, a theory of need is proposed by McClelland (1955), which states that people are motivated by different needs and the prominent need defines what factors may motivate them. For example, according to McClelland (1955), people who have a high need for achievement are motivated by challenging tasks and lofty objectives, while people who have a high need for affiliation are motivated by opportunities that furnish them with more social interactions or recognition. Need for power is high in people who are motivated to obtain positions of high status and power. These theories root the basis of motivation into an internal need of the person. In contrast to these theories, theories like that of Vroom (1964), consider the external rewards and expectations as the driving forces for motivation and performance. Vroom’s theory states that people gauge if their efforts are capable of getting them the desired performance, and if the performance outcome can lead them to their goals or rewards. This means that there are basically two aspects to motivation one is the expectations of a link between effort and performance, and the other a direct link between the performance and rewards. Another essential aspect of motivation according to this theory is the desirability of the reward or the expected value of the reward. People are motivated to expend the effort only if the reward has value for them. As such, motivation according to this theory is a product of: Motivation = Expectancy X Instrumentality X Valence Where, Expectancy is expectation that the effort leads to performance Instrumentality is the perception that the performance will be instrumental in attaining the reward Valence is the value of the reward for the person In addition, motivation can be both extrinsic, as in the case where rewards and incentives are the motivating factors, and intrinsic, where the person wants to fulfil an internal need –