Motivation and job satisfaction

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Pizam (2005) noted that process theories are based on certain theories that include expectancy theory (1964), goal-setting theory (1990), cognitive evaluation theory, equity theory and reinforcement theory (1974). The process theories assist in having adequate understanding about the factors accountable for motivations and determining cognitive processes of an individual (Pizam, 2005).The definition of motivation has been identified to be explained by different authors in different context. According to Singh amp. Tiwari (2013), term motivation is defined as a method, which accounts the intensity, direction along with determination of practices of an individual towards a postulated goal. According to the study, it has been perceived that the degree of motivation of any individual or group varies in accordance with various influencing factors such as type of practices and time. Theory of motivation comprehensively includes three key determinants, including intensity, direction and persistence (Singh amp. Tiwari, 2013). Moreover, the study of Brown amp. Sargeant (2007) also suggests that term motivation is often characterised into two major categories such as extrinsic and intrinsic motivation. The concept of extrinsic motivation denotes the rewards that are tangible, including monetary benefits, promotion, security and conditions among others. On the other hand, the concept of intrinsic motivation significantly defines the intangible rewards such as psychological appreciation, promotional rewards along with various types of approvals and admirations among others (Singh amp. Tiwari, 2013. Brown amp. Sargeant, 2007).In a sociological context, the theory of motivation is defined differently than the other area of interest. In this context, Zalenski amp. Raspa (2006), motivation is defined as a way where an individual is satisfied by addressing his/her different types of basic needs in his/her day-to-day life. The