Methicillin Resistant Staphyloccocus Aureaus

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It is now several decades since methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has caused infections in patients with well-described risk factors, which include hospitalization, surgery, residence in chronic care facilities, and injection drug use (Lowy, 1998). In recent times, MRSA has caused infections in patients lacking traditional risk factors for infection with MRSA (Hussain, et al. 2000. Gorak, et al. 1999). And to a greater surprise, many of these infections have occurred in the community and have affected children and young adults, and some have been linked with significant morbidity.In the United States, the first recorded MRSA outbreak occurred at a Boston hospital in 1968. In the subsequent two decades, most MRSA infections occurred in persons who had close contact with hospitals or other healthcare settings. However, in the United States also MRSA infections are now seen in previously healthy persons who were not associated with healthcare settings. These persons appear to have acquired their infections in the community, rather than in a healthcare setting (MDH, 2007).At this point in time, it is good to understand how these organisms have accrued resistance. Antibiotics resistance happens when the S. aureus bacteria produce an enzyme that breaks down antibiotics. S. aureus bacteria have a unique protein that prevents the antibiotic from killing the bacteria. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is a strain of S. aureus that is resistant to a large number of antibiotics making it difficult to treat because of the limited number of antibiotics available (Canadian Institute of Public Health Inspectors, 2000). As of now, there are16 epidemic strains of MRSA that have been discovered but two particular strains (clones 15 and 16) are thought to be more infectious than the others. Staphylococcus aureus is an organism that colonizes the skin, particularly the nose, skin folds, hairline, perineum, and navel. It is also the most common cause of minor infection in wounds, pimples, boils, and impetigo.