According to the research findings, metaphors give a clearer understanding of the paradoxical and complex characteristics of organizational behavior. Some of the metaphors that have been used over time in reference to organizational behavior include organism, culture, machine and political systems. Culture refers to a way of a people hence organizational culture denotes a pattern of basic assumptions adopted by a group. These assumptions act like the norm and any new member has to learn them. These norms govern the interaction of people within an organization and the working relationship with those outside the organization. They define conduct for various situations. In analyzing organizations as cultures, the Hofstede’s cultural dimensions theory proposes that organizations adopt a culture as determined by the region they are located in Hofstede. Organizational culture varies from one nation to another. An awareness of multiculturism is important for any organization. For instance, if an organization based in Britain chooses to extend its operations to the Arab nations, then it has to take into consideration the aspect of religion that is an important part of the lives of the Arabians. Hence, the organization will adjust its culture to accommodate its Arabian employees. According to Hofstede, national and regional cultural groupings affect organizational behavior.
Different analysts have described an organizational culture in various ways. Deal and Kennedy have four cultures. The ‘work-hard, play hard’ culture is one where the members of an organization put a lot of time into their work to be among the best. Such organizations are result oriented. Organizations like restaurants have adopted such a culture. The ‘tough guy macho’ culture is a high risk and reward oriented culture. In addition to this, such organizations focus on the present rather than long-term goals.