Managing Large Scale Change Programs in Organizations The case study of the Jeddah City Municipality as a public governmental o

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Next, I give my gratitude to King Abdullah Al-Saud for believing in the new generations, encouraging their education, and promising a bright future. I thank the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia, and the Saudi Cultural Bureau here in London for their unconditional care, moral support, and full financial sponsorship, and for being a warm family to me and all the rest of the Saudi students in the UK. In particular, I would like to thank the Cultural Attache, Dr. Ghazi Al-Makki, for always being there for me. I genuinely thank my beloved country, The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, for being what it is today and for giving me this opportunity to grow. Finally, I would like to dedicate this master’s degree to my family who gave me their full support and prayers, and for their faith and confidence in my success. I would like to thank my wife, Alaa Linjawi, for standing beside me, believing in me, and easing all the hard times we went through together during our postgraduate studies. Abstract Although organisational change is inevitable, very little is known about how change strategies can affect employees’ behaviour, and how, in turn, their actions influence the success of change projects. The purpose of this study is to address this void in the current literature on organisational change management. The aim of this thesis is to discuss both change theory and practice. Therefore, this research conducted a case study of Jeddah City Municipality (JCM) in Saudi Arabia. JCM has been chosen for this paper because it has undergone massive changes over the recent past years. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted with well qualified key positions and staff members of the organisation in order to describe the cases from their own experiences and viewpoints. This research sheds the light on how the Municipality approached different change projects with very different results. Two change projects achieved successful implementation due to the emphasis on change management practices and the organisational factors critical to the implementation. However, the third project’s proved to be less successful as a result of too little focus being placed on understanding and analysing the situation and formulating an implementation strategy that best suits that situation. As a result, this study draws our attention to the importance of raising employees’ levels of effective commitment to change in order to ensure a successful change implementation. KEY WORDS: Jeddah City Municipality (JCM), Appreciative Inquiry (AI). Table of Contents Acknowledgments 2 Abstract 3 Chapter 1: Introduction 6 Background and Rationale 6 The Importance of Change Management 7 Aims, Objectives, and Research Questions 8 Research Structure 10 Chapter 2: Literature Review 11 The Concepts of Change 11 Reasons and Forces of Change 12 Internal Sources 12 External Sources 13 The Nature of Strategic Change Management 15 Hierarchy of Strategy 16 Theoretical Perspectives on Change Management 17 Planned Change Theories 18 Emergent Change Theories 26 The Characteristics of Leading Change 30 The Stages of Psychological Reaction to Changes 33 Critical Analysis of Literature 34 Chapter 3: Methodology 37 Methodology and Research Design 37 Data Collection Methods 38 Case Study 39 Qualitative Interviews 40 Chapter 4: Research Content 42 Background of