Unfortunately, it is the only proportion which is very important for humans and other terrestrial organisms. Groundwater is all water which is below the surface of the ground in the saturation zone (that is, below the water table) and in direct contact with the ground or subsoil (Bellamy, 2005).
The quality of freshwater is vitally important. We depend on surface and groundwater sources for our drinking water. We also need water to generate energy, to grow our crops, to harvest fish, to run machinery, to carry wastes, to enhance the landscape and for other activities. We use water for washing and cleaning, industrial abstraction, recreation, cooking, gardening, as well as simply to enjoy it. Water is also vital as a habitat for both freshwater and marine plants and animals (Vale, 2006).
Pollution of surface water is one of the global concerns. Though we recognize the fact that water is the most important natural resource, we pay no attention to it by polluting it. Almost any solid, liquid or gaseous substance entering surface waters could be classified as a pollutant. This includes chemicals, salt, wash waters, waste products, trade effluents, and fuels. As a result, we are slowly but certainly harming the planet to the point where organisms are dying at a very alarming rate. . In order to combat water pollution, it is essential that we understand the problems and become part of the solution.
Water pollution occurs when a body of water is adversely affected due to the addition of large amounts of materials to the water. . When it is unfit for its intended use, water is considered polluted. . There are two sources of pollution: ‘point’ source pollution, that is discharged from a specific location (a pipe, drainage ditch, etc) and ‘non-point’ pollution that emits from diffuse sources, such as run-off from agricultural land.
Point sources of pollution occur when harmful substances are emitted directly into a body of water.