2. Every event in the world is caused by other events. Human actions and decisions are events in the world. Therefore, every human action and decision is caused by other events. This is a deductive argument. This argument is valid and sound because the claim is logical that the actions and decisions of humans are caused by other events in the world. Similarly, humans react to the events going on around them, which often incite further events that can also be responded to.
3. If God exists, then life has meaning. God does not exist. Therefore, life has no meaning. This argument is a deductive argument. It is an invalid and unsound argument because life has meaning regardless of whether or not God exists. If human beings were created by a higher being, they were created for a purpose. their existence is proof enough that their lives have meaning. If humans were not created by a higher being but through natural means, their lives have meaning by being on earth and creating their own meaning.
4. All cows are purple. Socrates is purple. Therefore, Socrates is a cow. This is deductive argument. This argument is invalid and unsound because we are physically able to determine that Socrates is not a cow. Furthermore, we are able to conclude that Socrates and cows are not purple. Since the premises are not true, the conclusion cannot be true.
5. William James and John Dewey both called themselves pragmatists. They are the leading American philosophers. Therefore, all American philosophers are pragmatists. This is an inductive argument. This argument is invalid and unsound because the identities of these two men as pragmatists cannot be applied to a larger group. Since a lot of philosophical thought is based on theory, pragmatism would not be logically applicable to all American philosophers.
6. Believing in God makes people moral – that is, believers tend to do good and avoid evil. This argument is deductive. It is an invalid and unsound