I must be able to manage myself if I want to manage others. In order to be an effective manager and leader one must be able to influence others to willingly do things with quality and standard that is above average and above the norm. A good manager is one who sets an example for others. He or she must do what he or she expects of others and be able to do it even better and more willingly. An effective manager is both a follower and a leader and he or she should be able to direct the behaviour of his or her staff in order to accomplish the objectives of the company or business. The roles of a good manager also include helping people to be committed to achieving organizational goals and encouraging constructive change that is necessary. By creatively organizing, leading, and managing a good manager can match an individual’s assets with the jobs and responsibilities. Then it is possible to help individuals work as a team.
There are many different learning styles. Some individuals learn better by receiving information verbally. Others learn by incorporating motor skills and yet using intellectual skills work best with various individuals. Gagne (n.d.) suggests, five major categories of learning: verbal information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills and attitudes. Different internal and external conditions are necessary for each type of learning. People also learn better by doing and participating actively in the learning process. Interactive learning keeps the students, or learners, involved as this type learning involves interactions, either with other staff members, students, employers, teachers, the environment, or the learning material interactive learning offers involvement.
There are many theories about learning. Learning theories suggest that learning is a process. There are various theories. One theory is the stimulus-response model. This is the behaviourist orientation to learning. This theory states that behaviour is observable, learned by a change in behaviour, and is shaped by the environment that surrounds individuals. In other words, this theory suggests that external factors such as environmental elements determine what individuals learn instead of individual learning. Another learning theory is the cognitive orientation to learning. This focuses on the mental procedure, or the act/process of knowing, of learning. People who support this theory believe that learning comes from expectations, connotation, and the making of different connections. Thoughts and perceptions are viewed as a whole or a pattern instead of individual images. Individuals use knowledge and information that was gained earlier to come up with strategies and planes.