Islamic Civilization and Byzantium

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This small group moved to Medina under the command of Allah, where many Muslims already resided. This became the first Muslim State (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 302-305). Despite this, the Muslims in Medina were attacked by those in Mecca several times. Due to their status as idol-worshippers and the breaking of a peace treaty, Mohammed decided it was time to conquer Mecca, where many of those living there were converted into Islam (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 301). From here, Islam began to flourish under the Prophet Mohammed until his death in 632AD, as the people of Mecca were converted and no longer provided a threat (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 318-322). Despite this, Islam would face several challenges following the death of the Prophet Mohammed (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 308-335). As with many religions, there was a split in Islam reflecting an internal conflict. the Sunni sect, who hold Mohammed’s life up as an example of purity and are said to follow tradition, and the Shi’a sect. who follow the word of Imams as they believe they are directly descended from Mohammed and he appointed this lineage as his successors (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 325-335). … Sufism is slightly different to the Shi’a/Sunni split, as followers of Sufi can identify with a separate sect whilst still following Sufi Islam (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 325-335). Islam refers to the people of the book (referring to those of other religions that follow similar ideals to those within Islam, like Christians and Jewish people) as dhimmi (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 325-335). These peoples are allowed to live in the Muslim State and can be exempted from some parts of Sharia Law. The dhimmi are afforded the utmost respect in Islam (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 325-335), as the teachings of Allah and the Prophet Mohammed suggest they should be. Additionally, the constitution of Medina suggests that those who follow religious and good lives should be treated as equals. Additionally, being an Abrahimic religion, there are many similarities between Islam, Christianity and Judaism. All three religions worship one God, in contrast to many of the smaller religions that were around in the area at the time of Mohammed (von Sivers, Desnoyers Stow 325-335). There are also many similar guidelines and practises within Islam when compared with those found in Christianity and Judaism. What circumstances brought Abd al-Rahman I to Iberia? Discuss his efforts to establish the Umayyad dynasty in Iberia. How do these efforts impact Jews and Christians during his rule and afterwards? In what ways did language (Arabic) and culture impact the Jews and Christians of Iberia? What were their respective reactions? Relate and discuss examples of these reactions. What happened to the Umayyad dynasty under Abd al-Rahman III? Abd-al-Rahman I first came to Iberia as a result of having to flee the old Umayyad dynasty, found in Damascus, as the Abbasid were coming to power in the