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Innovation in organizational structure

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It also reflects similarities with other aspects of Lewin’s general model of change. For example, the planning stage can be described as a period of unfreezing, or problem awareness, the action stage as a period of changing or trying out new forms of behavior in an attempt to understand and cope with the system’s problems and the results stage as a period of refreezing, in which newer forms of behaviors are tried out on the job and, if successful and reinforcing, become a part of the system’s problem-solving behavior. Action research is generally problem centered, client centered, and action oriented. In this process data are not simply used to compile a written report but they are actually fed back in open joint sessions, and the client and the change agent work jointly for identifying and ranking specific problems, for devising methods of finding their real causes, and to develop plans for coping with them practically. Scientific method that includes data gathering, forming hypotheses, testing hypotheses, and measuring results is an integral part of this process. Action research also sets in motion a long-range, cyclical, self-correcting mechanism for maintaining and enhancing the effectiveness of the client’s system by leaving the system with practical and useful tools for introducinbg changes. (Lewin, 1946) It can be described as an problem-solving process involving four statges. It is generally used in quality control.