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In what ways can the concept of intersectionality be used to help us understand the disadvantage and discrimination faced by black and minority ethnic women who have contact with the criminal justice system

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or intersectionism, on the other hand, can be traced back from the North American Feminist Movement or more specifically the Black Feminist Movement during the 1990s (Collins, 2000) to address the issue regarding the discrimination suffered by black women in employment (Crenshaw, 1989) and gendered systems of oppression. The said term was coined in 1989 by Kimberle Crenshaw. But the terms gained its popularity in the discussion on Black feminism made by Patricial Hill Collins in the 1990s, replacing what the latter had previously termed her theory as black feminist thought and extended its applicability was extended from covering African American only to all women (Mann and Huffman 2005, p.70). However, it seems that the said theory is still more of a theoretical approach within research instead of being utilized in the process of policy making (www.gender.no, 2006).
Intersectionality is a theory which tries to examine the different ways in which several socially and culturally created classes interrelate on multiple levels to mark themselves as inequality in the society. According to the said theory, the classical models of oppression in a society are based on race, ethnicity, nationality, sexual orientation, species, class, gender, religion and disability. These forms of oppression do not work independently of one another but interact in such a way to create a system of oppression that manifests the “intersection” of different faces of discrimination (Knudsen, 2007). Moreover, the different cultural patters of oppression are not only interconnected but are grouped together and influenced by different intersectional systems in the society (Collins 2000, p.45). According to Hendriks (2009), through intersectionalism, an individual is empowered to make sense of their own reality. Intersectionalism is premised on the ground that persons have a complex mix of individualities, like religion, race, culture,family, socio-economic condition and these all influence