In what sense does modernisation and postmodernity present a challenge for identity and the self

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There is a great demarcation in identity constructs when comparing the post-modern era to the pre-modern era. The biggest difference is that the post-modern era has been marked with a great deal more impersonality then the pre-modern era. Whereas, in the pre-modern era, an individual could derive a sense of self and identity from their close connections – their neighbors, their churches, their family – in the post-modern era, this changed. Moreover, the role of the man has changed with the advent of the changes that have occurred in the post-modern era. Where he was the sole breadwinner in the pre-modern era, and this is where he derived his identity, in the post-modern era, the man has become less of a breadwinner and thus, according to some views, he became more of a consumer.Therefore, the male identity has changed substantially in this era. The following explains the broad nature of identity, then explains how individuals, in general, have been affected by the post-modern changes, then, finally, how men in particular have been affected by these changes. The nature of identity Identity is a dynamic social product, residing in psychological processes, which cannot be understood except in relation to its social context and historical perspective. (Breakwell, 1986, p. 9). It is a process that is developed over a person’s entire life span.. Identity grows across time, but there is a nature of time that must be considered. Inner time is a duration, and is in tune with each person’s cognitive rhythms. Martin (1987) references this time thusly – inner time is the realm of subjective consciousness of the individual. As we know from experience, the two may seem inconsistent, as when we talk of time flying or passing slowly. (Martin, 1987, p.199) This concept of time refers to our inner states. Intersubjective time is measured by face-to-face social interactions, by sharing experiences with others, thus moving through time conjointly. By sharing experiences with others, the interactants come close to achieving a consensual appreciate of their conjoint movement through time. (Breakwell, 1986, p. 21). Biographical time refers to large chunks of time that are meaningful in one’s life eras, such as adolescence, childhood, college years, married life, etc. There are also social and personal aspects to an identity. All humans have a division between self-identity and the performance of oneself that he puts out into the world, in specific social contexts (Giddens, 1991, p. 58). The personal identity, or real self, differs from one individual to another – some individuals’ real self comes out when they act impulsively, other’s real self is manifested when acting out social obligations. (Breakwell, 1986, p. 16). The real self may be looked at as being a person’s root core of who they are, and who they would be if there were not the influences of various social dynamics and constraints. (Tracy amp. Trethewey, 2005, p. 173). Another way of looking at this concept is the private self, the self that known only to the individual, and the public self, the self that is known to others. These two aspects of identity both act in concert with one another and conflict with each other. Most individuals unconsciously deem one aspect more important than the other, and the favored aspect is the one that controls their behavior. (Brewer amp. Hewstone, 2004, p. 185). There is some theory that one’s personal identity is only exposed when making moral decisions, as this exposes values, which are the cornerstone of presuppositions about the self. (Breakwell, 1986, p. 17). According to Anthony Giddens (1991), identity is a reflexive project. The premise of reflexive awareness is that an individual knows what they are doing, and why they are doing it. Humans monitor their circumstances, and are able to discursively explain why they are engaging in a certain behaviour. Discursive practices use reason or argument to explain something, as opposed to emotions and intuition. Practical consciousness is the