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Impact of Studies and Researches in Supporting Decision Making in Police Field

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The term ‘decision making’ was introduced into the business world in the midst of the 20th century by a retired telephone executive known as Chester Barnard. Another documentation acknowledges that the historical foundations of decision making in organizations were established in The Functions of the Executive, the seminal work of Barnard (1938) (Novicevic, Clayton, amp. Williams 420). Barnard expended much effort in trying to offer a deep insight into the decision-making process in his two closing chapters of the book titled The Functions of the Executive. In his model of individual decision making, Bernard offered primacy to social environment as the most fundamental contextual factor that affects individual decision making. Of importance is the theorist’s claim that Certain kinds of social conditions primarily evolve and function as material or equipment of decisive behavior (Novicevic, Clayton, amp. Williams 421). This implies that the specific social context can activate a decision-making process and cause it to evolve in phases. Barnard identified seven phases that comprise the process of making and executing individual-level decisions. These phases include (1) the apprehension and acceptance of the end-in-view (goal adoption), (2) the organization of the situation (goal context), (3) the discrimination of the factors of the situation (filtering), (4) the discrimination of alternatives or determining the best alternative, (5) the integration of alternatives and end, (6) the translation of the strategic factors into terms of acts (implementation), and (7) the fixing of choice (execution) (Novicevic, Clayton, amp. Williams 421). Later theorists such as James March, Herbert Simon, and Henry Mintzberg were influential in the entrenchment of the term and its inclusion in the day-to-day operations of the organization (Buchanan amp. O’Connell par. 1-3). The term decision making has gone hand-in-hand with intellectual or scholarly acumen owing to its imperfectability, implying that those who routinely consult studies and researches are better poised to make acceptable decisions, if not optimal ones (Smith 7). The growth of the term in the organizational setup has assumed different approaches and trends, though the underlying focus has been to emphasize the actions or processes that individuals consult in making important decisions. The trend of consulting studies and researches in making important decisions is quite new and many believe that it has its origins in later years of the 20th century (Corsianos 302. Gorringe, Stott, amp. Rosie 112). However, despite its critical essence and importance, no resources have been made available depicting the historical background of the trend. There are a number of theories that seem to support effective decision support in the police field. One such theory is the general purpose model of decision making, which is to a large extent championed by economic theorists. The theory posits that people make decisions by identifying the problem, defining objectives, generating alternatives, evaluating possible solutions, and selecting the best option (Fitch 2). Here, studies and researches can be used to inform law enforcement agencies in terms of generating alternatives, evaluating possible solutions, or selecting the best option. It should be recalled that studies and researches have been used to solve problems using this model of decision making (Smith 2).