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Impact of Climate Change on Environmental Flows at the Basin Scale

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The multi-complexity of the goals of the study made it relevant to use a multivariate approach in the methodology. To this end, the Range of Variability Approach (RVA), which makes use of the Indicators of Hydrological Alteration (IHA) were employed for methodological application. Though the indicators present the opportunity of calculating flows in both daily and monthly scenarios, the monthly flows were used as there was a 30-year marginal calculation involving 1961 to 1990. The indicators were however calculated by making use of extensive data storage systems built on the principles of spatial scales that give credence to multiple sites and scenarios. For the purpose of the present, however, the multiple sites and scenario factor calculations were used only as a comparative analysis to ascertain the acceptable baseline environment flow ranges that could be recorded for the projected hydrological regimes used. Results from the study showed that River Okavango like other rivers across Africa faces the risk of the negative impact of climate change on the river ecosystem.

Climate change has been an important issue of discussion that is not carried only at the academic levels but on a nationalistic and global level. It is against this backdrop that climate simulation is carried out at a global level by making use of General Circulation Models (GCM) (Kapangaziwiri and Hughes, 2008). With such globalized models, globally accepted physical laws regulating not just the atmosphere but also the circulation and behavior of oceans are undertaken by the use of authenticated and empirical mathematical equations. Indeed, as much as knowledge of the causes of some of the problems in climate change is necessary, it is even more necessary to have specific quantification of the risk that faces the basin scale. This is because it is when such authentic quantifications are done that subsequent intervention that addresses risk management can be undertaken as contingency measures to addressing the trend (Kingston et al, 2009).&nbsp.