HR managers, for instance, might be foreseeing the organizations enduring hiring needs based on demands of company growth and proficiency requirements. Or they might be increasing organization-wide human resource information systems that trail all of the information concerning employees that used to be stored on paper in file drawers. Or they can be benchmarking company HR practices against industry competitors (Konrad, A.M., and Linnehan, F., 1999). All these are big, protracted jobs, and they do not leave HR managers many resources sagging to deal with the fundamental tasks (e.g., hiring, firing, and training etc.) that used to be the restricted area of the HR department. In Japan, there are different concepts concerning the continued viability of concepts of HRM, shushinkoyo is among those popular concepts in large Japanese firms. Kobayashi of Aoyama Gakuin University believes that the three foundations of Japanese human resource management shushinkoyo, nenko joretsu, and kigyo-betsu rodokumiai (long-term employment, seniority system, and enterprise-based unions) are crumbling and that there are most important changes ahead (Kilburn, 1994:45 ). Kobayashi points out that while major corporations can still retain much of the substance of long-term employment by off-loading excess employees to subsidiaries or associates, few now see this as more than a stopgap solution. Noguchi of Hitotsubashi University states that white-collar employees require to get used to the idea that they can lose their jobs (Rosario, 1993:22 ). Noguchi believes that it is a long-term trend that will not go away when the economy picks up. It is not just employers who are having subsequent thoughts about shushinkoyo. More and more employees themselves have an aspiration to seek new opportunities outside their present company.